Flashcards in Risk of Transmission of Disease Deck (9):
State the differences between monogenic and complex diseases.
Monogenic diseases are rare, have a clear inheritance pattern and are not affected by environmental factors Complex diseases are the opposite
State the difference between mutations and polymorphisms.
Mutations are any changes in genetic material that are hereditary Polymorphisms are mutations which occur at >1% frequency in the population
State two different types of point mutations
Non-sense and mis-sense
State two types of frame shift mutations.
Give an example of an autosomal dominant disease and the mechanism of action.
Huntingdon’s Disease – mutations in the HTT gene on Chr 4, which codes for huntingtin. Mutation leads to production of a toxic protein that accumulates and forms clumps in organs. Causes cell death in the basal ganglia in the brain. It is caused by an unstable CAG repeat – the more repeats you have the more likely you are to get HD. Severity increases with time and age of onset decreases.
Give an example of an autosomal recessive disease and the mechanism of action
Cystic Fibrosis – caused by a mutation in the CFTR gene on Chr 7, which affects chloride ion function in epithelial cells. Gives rise to thick mucus.
Give an example of a mutation in the same gene causing two different conditions
Congenital absence of the vas deferens – caused by mutations in CFTR
Give an example of a X-linked recessive condition
Haemophilia A and B – A is caused by a mutation in the F8 gene on Chr X which encodes factor VIII.
B – caused by mutation in F9 gene which encodes factor IX