What areas of utilities is it used in ?
Water and wastewater, electric power, telecommunications
How is automation used in defence ?
Production, transportation, strike, target
How does automation increase productivity ?
Increases productivity per unit labour
How does automation improve job design ?
Introduces flexibility of design
What areas of manufacturing is automation used in ?
Food & Pharmaceutical, Chemical and petroleum, pulp and paper
What are the two broad categories in which robots can be applied ?
General and Industry
What are the kind of hazardous conditions robots can brave ?
Toxicity, Heat, Radiation
Where does a robot win over manual labour ?
In Repetitive Work
It does not get fatigued or bored
How do robots carry out inspection ?
Mechanical probes, optical sensors, measuring devices
How many samples can robots inspect ?
In industries, where do robots perform material transfer ?
From point to point or conveyor to machine
After transfering material, what are some processing operations robotics finds application in ?
Welding, riveting, drilling, spray painting
Why are robots highly efficient for assembly work ?
It is repetitive work
How do robots help ?
They improve product quality and reliability
Where is automation used in the manufacturing sector ?
Food and pharmaceutical, Chemical and Petroleum, Paper and pulp
Where is automation used in transportation ?
Marine, railways, aerospace, automotive
Where is automation used in utilities sector ?
Water and waste water, electric power, telecommunication
Where is automation used in defense ?
Production, Transportation and Strikes
What facility operation sectors are automation used in ?
Security, Energy Management, Environmental Control
What are the three categories of automation ?
Fixed, Programmable, Flexible
Which automation has the least initial cost ?
Fixed, for regular jobs
The instruments are generally fixed and do not have much variety
What is the production volume Fixed Automation generally handles ?
Mass Production. When there is a high demand for high volume.
What are some general applications of fixed automation ?
Bottling plants, Packaging Plants
Which automation has the highest initial cost ?
What is the general production volume handled by programmable automation ?
Batch Production in low- to- medium
How often can programmable automation change the sequence of operation ?
It can change from batch to batch.
How is this achieved ?
By new program commands, tool changes and fixture modification.
Why does Programmable automation take the highest set up time ?
The system has to be completely set before each batch.
How much variety can flexible automation offer in sequence modification ?
Different products can be produced in the same batch
Does it require a greater set up time than programmable automation ?
No. The changes happen with minimum loss of time.
How does it achieve this in terms of the programming ?
Part programming can be developed offline and transfered through electronic media
How is the physical set up changed quickly ?
Using transfer Pallets
Which is the highest hardware and software cost ?
How does automation affect productivity ?
It increases the volume and reduces the cost
Output per unit labour is greater
Where does automation win over labour ?
Does not suffer fatigue, boredom or
How does automation affect product quality ?
There is greater accuracy
How does automation provide flexibility in job design ?
It handles complex designs easily
How does automation affect lead time ?
What is lead time ?
A lead time is the latency between the initiation and execution of a process
How does automation improve shop efficiency ?
Various activities are evenly distributed
How does automation makes up for the initial and running cost ?
It compensates for both initial and running cost with high productivity
How does automation improve safety of worker ?
The workers now perform greater supervision work.
How does automation affect job openings ?
How does automation affect employment ?
How does automation bring down human skill ?
Most of the skilled work is performed by the machine
What are some basic strategies employed by automation in industry ?
Specialised, Multiple, Simultaneous, Integrated Operation
How does automation perform operations simultaneously ?
Several tools are used to perform operations simultaneously
How are integrated operations performed ?
Several work stations are linked to one work station to improve shop efficiency
What are some benefits of multiple operations ?
Saves setting-up time and routing time of object.
What is routing ?
Selecting the minimum cost/time path for an object to reach it’s destination
How is the process optimized in automation ?
Monitoring is done online and corrective action is taken immediately
What are the three main components of NC System ?
Program of instructions, MCU, Machine tools and tooling
What instructions are contained in the program of instructions ?
Step by step instructions for positioning the fabrication tool, controlling the spindle speed and other tools
How was input fed in the olden days ?
Through punched papers and tapes
What is the modern method ?
CD or main disc drive
How is offline work done ?
Seperate CD drives are used
What does the MCU mainly consist of ?
It consists of electronics and hardware that read and interpret the program and convert it to command signals for actuating system
What is an actuator ?
An actuator is a type of motor that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system
What are the things that MCU controls ?
Path of the tool, cutting speed, feed rate, tool changes
What do modern machines use in the MCU ?
What does a machine tool generally consist of ?
Spindle, motor control unit. Cutting tools, Work fixtures and auxiliary units
What is an auxiliary unit ?
It is a unit that produces additional help or support to the system
What is a spindle ?
It is the rotating axis of the machine.
What are the two types of tooling
Qualified and Preset tooling
What is a qualified tool ?
It is rough machining which has more tolerance between cutting edges and tool locating faces
What is a preset tool ?
It is preset to closer tolerances and needs adjustment for each batch of production
Why are NC machines prefered for expensive workpieces ?
Rejection is costly
What kind of operations are NC machines prefered for ?
100% inspection, complex part geometry, large number of operations
Why do NC machines require lesser down time ?
Setup and handling time reduce
What is handling time ?
The handling time is the number of business days the seller will take to ship the item after receiving the cleared payment.
What is down time ?
The time during which a machine, especially a computer, is out of action or unavailable for use.
How does NC Machine reduce lead time ?
Job is done in batches
How does NC machine provide flexibility ?
Job design, work schedule
How do part programming errors affect NC machines ?
They lead to poor job configuration.
Why do NC machines take a long time to update ?
It is difficult to change hardware
What is a major drawback of conventional NC in terms of optimization ?
It cannot optimize feed rate and material removal rate on it’s own
Why is it difficult to reduce non productive time immediately in NC machines ?
Online information is not available to management to take timely decisions.
What kind of environment do NC machines require ?
How does the NC MCU utilise the part program ?
It is executed block by block.
What happens to the program in CNC ?
It is fed to memory and then execution instructions are given.
How does it do this ?
A pulse is generated for each movement of machine tool.
What are the four basic functions of CNC ?
Machine tool control, In process compensation, operational features, diagnostics
What is in process compensation ?
It involves dynamic correction of machine tool motion for changes or errors during processing
What are the other reasons adjustment may be needed ?
Due to in process inspection after controller gets feedback, tool life
What are some major operational features ?
Online editing, Various interpolation, Graphical display of tool path, Support of various units
What is the first step in diagnostics ?
Identify reasons for downtime occurence
What is the next step ?
Alert to indicate the failure and have a replacement for less reliable components
Why is CNC preferred for material removal ?
It optimizes it and does complex configurations
How is metal shaped ?
CNC plasma or laser cutters
How are holes punched ?
CNC turret passes
How are metal plates bent ?
CNC press brakes are used
What is interpolation ?
In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points
What interpolations does NC offer ?
Straight and circular
What interpolations does CNC offer
Helical, parabolic and cubical curves also
How does digitizing software help ?
The CNC can use optical probes to copy the required shape and then generate a program to fabricate it.
How does CNC reduce waste dramatically ?
It optimizes use of material
Why does CNC require costlier personnel ?
Higher skill and program literacy required
Why do CNC systems require support facility ?
To perform offline programming and data monitoring
Why is CNC uneconomical for a singular job ?
The extra time and special personnel are required even for a singular job.
How is material removal done using EDM ?
Material is removed from the workpiece by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric liquid and subject to an electric voltage
What is a dielectric ?
It is an electrical insulator that can be polarised by the application of an electric field.