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Flashcards in Rocks Deck (22):
1

(1) What is formed from limestone when it is subjected to heat and pressure?

Metamorphic Rocks

2

(2) Give an advantage and a disadvantage, to local communities, of a nearby limestone
quarry

advantage
(brings in) money / employment (1)
disadvantage
dust / noise pollution /extra traffic
/destroys (wildlife) habitat /damages
landscape /damages natural beauty
/ less tourists (1)

3

(3) Limestone is a natural form of calcium carbonate.
Limewater is calcium hydroxide solution.
Describe how limewater can be made from calcium carbonate.

heat/thermally decompose
(calcium carbonate)(1)
• to form calcium oxide (1)
• {react (calcium oxide) with /
add} water (1)
• to form (solid) calcium
hydroxide (1)
• add (more) water / dissolve
(calcium hydroxide) in water
(1)
• filter (1)

4

(6) The limestone shown in the photograph was originally formed beneath the sea and
then earth movements forced the rock upwards to form the cliff.
Describe how the limestone was originally formed and has become the cliff face
shown in the photograph.

formed from sediments / shells
• sediments fall to the bottom of the sea
• layers of sediment build up on top of one another
• over (very) long time period
• rock formed / compaction
• (caused by)pressure (from the layers above and minerals)
• (cause) the sediment to ‘stick together’
• (to form)layers
• rock movement/change in sea level
• (more recently) rock has been weathered / eroded (by sea)
• because it is a soft rock

5

(1) State what type of rock limestone is.

sedimentary

6

(2) Explain how the marble has formed above the granite.

limestone (1)
• (changed by) heat (1)
• (changed by) pressure (1)
• (heat from) magma / {hot
/ molten} rock (next to it)
(1)

7

(2) explain why the rock at X contained larger crystals than the rock at Y

X cools slowly (1)
• Y cools quickly (1)
• suggested reason for
slower cooling e.g. larger
volume (of rock) / further
below surface / heat
escapes more slowly
/further from edge of
molten rock (1)

8

(1) CaCO3 → CaO + ...............................

CO2

9

(2) Calcium oxide reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide.
Write the balanced equation for this reaction.

CaO + H2O → Ca(H0)2

10

(2) Explain why calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) is spread on fields

(calcium hydroxide) alkaline / base
/ alkali (1)
• neutralises / neutralisation (1)
• (applied to) acid(ic) (soil) (1)

11

(2) Suggest how you could show that, when calcium carbonate is heated, a
reaction takes place.

ther
• {find mass of / weigh} solid before
heating (1)
• (heat in a suitable container) and
{find mass / weigh} again (when
cool) (1)

12

(2) Describe what you would observe when water is added, one drop at a time, to
cold calcium oxide

fizzing / hissing (1)
• steam (1)
• swells (1)
• solid crumbles (to a powder) (1)
• becomes hot (1)

13

(2) Write the balanced equation for the reaction of calcium hydroxide with
carbon dioxide

Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O

14

(1) State the common name for calcium hydroxide solution.

limewater

15

(2) Explain why calcium carbonate removes acidic gases from emissions in power
station chimneys.

(calcium carbonate) reacts with
{acidic gases / sulphur dioxide} (1)
• (because) calcium carbonate is a
base (1)
• to form a salt / calcium sulfate (1)
• neutralisation (reaction) (1)

16

(1) Which of the following is a rock that is another form of calcium carbonate?

chalk

17

(2) It is possible that not all of the calcium carbonate decomposed when it was
heated.
Suggest what could be done to confirm that the decomposition was complete

heat remaining solid/ heat it for
longer / heat it again (1)
mass after heating stays the
same / gas does not turn
limewater milky (1)
or
add acid (1)
no effervescence (1)

18

(2) Calcium oxide reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide.
Write the balanced equation for this reaction.

CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2

19

(2) Calcium carbonate is used to treat waste gases produced in coal-fired power
stations.
Explain why calcium carbonate is used in this way

{neutralises / reacts with /
removes / destroys/ gets rid of /
takes in} the (waste) gases(1)
acid(ic) (gases) / carbon dioxide
/ sulfur dioxide / oxides of
nitrogen (1)

20

(1) An example of a metamorphic rock is

marble

21

(3) Explain how these igneous rocks, containing different sized crystals, have been
formed.

magma/lava/molten rock
(1) M1
• cools (1) M2
• (A cools) quickly to form
small crystals (1) M3
• (B cools) slowly to form
large crystals(1) M4

22

(3) Explain why calcium carbonate is used to treat waste gases produced in coal-fired
power stations

(waste) gases acidic (1)
M1
• calcium carbonate basic
(1) M2
• (calcium carbonate) reacts
with/neutralises/forms
(correctly named) salt with
(waste acidic gases) (1)
M3
• coal contains sulfur
(impurity) (1) M4
• (burns to form) sulfur
dioxide (1) M5
• sulfur dioxide causes acid
rain M6
• (calcium carbonate)
reduces acid rain (1) M7