Roger and Kesner 2003 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Roger and Kesner 2003 Deck (10):


Acetylcholine has on memory formation and retrieval


controlled variables

amount of the drug,
genre of drug,
condition of rat,
maze complexity.


How many rats and where were they inserted?

Hebb William maze with food i the corner of one of the arms.


what did they do first?

First, randomly chosen rats were injected with saline solution-

placebo to ensure that an injection alone wasn't responsible for memory, and it could also increase adrenaline which could be a confounding variable.

inserted into a maze and quickly learnt where the food was


what did they do second?

Second the rats were injected with scopolamine- blocks acetylcholine hormone from travelling between neurones so no nerve impulse is sent across neurones.


what did they do thirdly?

Third, rats were in injected with physostigmine- a drug which is antagonistic towards acetylochine which prevents the the enzyme degradation from taking place.


when were results collected and what were they used to compare?

Results from the first 5 and last 5 from day 1 were used to compare encoding of memory

Results from the last 5 on day 1 and the first five of day 2 were used to assess retrieval



the scopolamine group took longer and made more mistakes in the learning of the maze
However, it did not appear to have an effect on retrieval of memories that had already been created
>>> acetylcholine may play an important role in the consolidation of spatial memories.


was the experiment controlled and why?

Researchers used a very controlled experimental set up with a placebo condition avoid the effect of extraneous variables.


what was the study able to establish and what were the limitations?

Study is able to establish cause and effect relationship

However, it is a reductionist approach to understanding memory and several types of memory and the process of memory consolidation is very complex and
limitation to the extent that a finding in the rats can be generalised for humans.