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Flashcards in roman empire Deck (37)
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1

periodization
MEM LR PJ FF SBD

The Monarchy (c. 753 BC-509 BC)
The Early Republic (509-264 BC)
The Middle Republic (264-133 BC)
The Late Republic (133-27 BC)
The Roman Empire (27 BC - AD 476)
The Principate (27 BC - AD 28
The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 BC - AD 68)
The Flavian Dynasty (69-96)
The Five Good Emperors (96-180)
The Severan Dynasty (193-235)
The Barracks Emperors (235-284)
The Dominate (284-476)
MEM LR PJ FF SBD

2

THE MONARCHY: rulers

seven kings of Rome, starting with Romulus and ending with Tarquin the Proud

3

When Tarquin was overthrown as a tyrant, the senate took charge permanently, creating a republic with elected magistrates to rule and govern Rome.

this is end result after the kings

4

cursus honorum

Each year, the Romans elected two consuls, as well as other lower magistrates, such as praetors, aediles, and quaestors. These magistrates ran the city government of Rome, and also administered Rome’s provinces that were acquired over time. Aspiring politicians rose through a series of junior magistracies to consul, a system known as

5

augur

priest who reads omens

6

mos maiorum

-Literally meaning ‘the custom of those who came before’,
-the concept of the mos maiorum dictated how the competition for dignitas should be conducted. There was a right and wrong way to go about this, and the right way had the weight of long years of tradition behind it.
-The Romans tended to be very conservative, at least in theory, when it came to politics and morality (the reality might not always reflect the theory, however).

7

dignitas

Dignitas really amounted to the authority and prestige of the family. A Roman added to his dignitas by acting according to the traditional norms of the mos maiorum, which included running for and winning political office, and serving in the military.

8

(the paterfamilias)

head of the family (the paterfamilias), who ruled over his family the way a king might rule over a city or kingdom.

9

the struggle of orders

However, because the bulk of the population in Rome were plebeians, this class bore the brunt of military service, taxation, and debt-slavery in Rome. The real problem was that many plebeians had become wealthy enough to rival some of the Patricians, but were being barred from political office and prestigious family connections. A contest known as the “Struggle of the Orders” developed.

10

tribunes ofplebs

-Originally, the tribunes were the chief magistrates elected by the Plebeian Assembly.
-They were considered sacrosanct, so no one could physically fight against them or interfere with them.
- They also had the veto power (veto means ‘I forbid’),

11

Twelve Tables (in 451 BC),

which established a real commitment to the rule of law in Rome. The tables were published in the forum (the center meeting area in Rome) so all could see and refer to them, much like Draco’s Code. The Twelve Tables contained laws for public and private life, defined the obligations and risks of debtors and creditors, and prevented arbitrary aggravations by patrician magistrates. Other changes followed over time.

12

decurions

The leading members of the cities and provinces, known as decurions, competed for local offices, paid for some local public works, and instituted Roman laws to replace or enhance their own local laws.

13

Plautus (ca. 254-184 BC)

playwright
-

14

Polybius

-The Rise of the Roman Empire
-The Histories
-first major historian

15

Terence (ca. 195-159 BC)

play write

16

Cicero (106-43 BC)

-He believed that natural law (the logos) governs the universe, and applies to all.
-On Duties,
in which discussed the best way to live as both a Roman citizen and as a moral human being.

17

Lucretius (ca. 96-55 BC)

On the Nature of Things, he denounced superstition and religion (which were about the same thing in his view) in favor of reason.

18

Sallust (86-35 BC)

- politicians:
Gaius Marius (The Jugurthine War)
and Lucius Catiline (The Catilinarian Conspiracy).

19

Virgil (70-19 BC)

-the roman homer
-Aeneid

20

Horace (65-8 BC)

-poet
-lyric poems known as Odes
-Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori”
-pithy phrases like carpe diem (‘seize the day’).

21

Livy (59 BC- AD 17)

From the Founding of the City
-history

22

Ovid (43 BC – AD 17

-poem is the Metamorphoses

23

Plutarch (ca. 50-120 AD

famous set of historical biographies, which again emphasized the moral and political lessons of history. His biography of Cato the Elder

24

Tacitus (AD 55-118)

Annals,
a history of the early Roman Emperors
-important treatise on the Germanic peoples, entitled Germania

25

Ptolemy (ca. 90-168 AD)

geographer and astronomer who dominated geographical and astronomical thinking
-latitude and longitude
-geographical guide to the world

26

Galen (129-c. 200 AD)

-physician
-anatomy

27

Marcus Aurelius (r. 161-180)

his written thoughts, known as the
Meditations, which show him seeking God’s help (the logos) to live a virtuous life (according to divine order) so as to find happiness.

28

Imperium

the power to command, power authorized to act for state

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collegiality

ensures equality

30

annuality

appoint new people and if run for office