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Flashcards in rome unit test Deck (51):
1

fresco

wall paintings

2

mosaics

painted walls or floors decorated with tiles

3

example work of a mosaic

"Mosaic Floor Panel", Imperial period, 2nd Century CE

4

atrium

main source of light, open roof

5

impluvium

beneath atrium, sunken structure which catches rain water

6

cubiculum

Roman bedroom/ a private room in the house of a wealthy Roman family

7

personification

human figure with symbolic characteristics

8

second style of frescos

realistic and gives the observer a sense of a distant and realistic perspective. The second style would incorporate common architectural structures such as fountains, buildings, and columns.

9

what is an example of the second style of frescos

"Cubiculum from the villa of P. Fannicus Synistor at Boscoreale."

10

third style of frescos

monochromatic and flat but can have small, intricate details. (ex: Wall painting on red ground: candelabrum with frieze, from the imperial villa at Boscotrecase)

11

linear perspective

objects in the distance are smaller than objects up close, creates an illusion of depth and distance

12

example of linear perspective

Cubiculum (bedroom) from the Villa of P. Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale

13

atmospheric perspective

objects in distance seem hazy, harder to see than objects up close

14

example of atmospheric perspective

Wall painting: Polyphemus and Galatea in a landscape, from the imperial villa at Boscotrecase

15

veristic

depicting unaltered realism, including if not slightly embellishing imperfections

16

physiognomy

determining personality based off of appearance (remember: judging a book by its cover)

17

propaganda

dissemination of information to influence the minds of the public

18

idealism

art which depicts a glorified version of something in reality, or a glorified imaginary concept/thing

19

roman patrician

veristic, physiognomy, wrinkles symbolize wisdom and virtue

20

augustus (sculpture)

idealistic, orator's pose, contrapposto, chestplate depicts divine beings

21

augustus of prima porta

refers back to the classical (period) style popular during the golden age of ancient greece under pericles in order to send the message that augustus is divine and powerful, and that he will recreate the golden age.

22

why couldn't the colosseum and aqueduct have been built without the invention of concrete?

they are dome shaped and would collapse or not hold shape otherwise, and would not be able to build up or have arches

23

who wrote the aeniad and what is the significance of this story?

virgil and story solely about aeneas ergo propaganda as augustus is related to him

24

greek theater

semicircle, marble, hard to carve, must be built on hillside, everyone can see the front, tragedies/comedies, competitions amongst poets and actors, place of worship as altar to dionysus could be found on stage

25

roman ampitheter

made of concrete, doesn't need to be built on a hill, gladiator fights, chariot races, recreated naval battles as built over a lake, would flood stage

26

gladiators

prisoners of wars, slaves, convicts who are forced to fight to the death

27

greek parthenon

temple dedicated to goddess athena, frieze with a depiction of a horde of athenians processing to the temple to perform a sacrifice and relationship between gods and mortals, marble,

28

roman pantheon

temple for all gods, radial building, 100 ce, hadrian (emperor) commisioned it, made of concrete, influence from greek architecture, can walk in, has atrium

29

michaelangelo

uses drawings as language, sketches are always first drafts of sculptures, paintings, etc., left majority of sculptures unfinished, sense of intimacy exuded by sketches.

30

hockney

expressed general uniqueness, life size paintings, portrait drawings, picasso's works and cubism aesthetic are favorite influences due to the distortion of perspective with bright colors

31

retrospective

focusing on all of an artist's works, the depiction of the general aesthetic

32

what is the significance of 44 BCE

julius caesar killed

33

what marked the end of the pax romana?

the death of emperor marcus aurelius

34

why did rome's economy decline?

agressive/hostile neighbors interfered with trade, dramatic expansion and no new gold or silver, raised taxes to compensate, produced coins that were made of a minimal amount of silver, if any

35

inflation

drastic decline in value of currency as well as increase of prices

36

mercenaries

government hired foreigners to fight for money as soldiers gave allegiance not to the empire but to their commanders who fought for rule over rome, but they still had little loyalty to the empire

37

diocletian

became emperor in 284 ce and restored rome by ruling stringently but increase the size of the army

38

how did diocletian solve solve inflation

by setting specific, stagnant prices for goods

39

how was diocletian portrayed?

like augustus, claimed to be of divinity and had ceremonies dedicated to himself to restore respect to the ruler

40

how did diocletian divide rome?

into two sections for fear that it was too massive to be controlled by a single ruler, those who spoke latin, and the section that spoke greek ( greece, egypt, syria, and anatolia)

41

was there equality between diocletian and his co-ruler?

no as the eastern half of rome which was ruled by diocletian had more powerful cities and trade centers

42

what happened after diocletian retired in 305 ce

civil war broke out immediately, four competators vied against each other for power of rome, among them was constantine

43

constantine

gained control of the west of empire in 312 ce, east in 324 ce making him the full ruler of rome

44

where did constantine move the capitol of rome to

byzantium (turkey) for trade and war advantages

45

what caused nomads/germanic tribes to be pushed into roman territory

huns from central asia invaded and pushed nomads up to roman borders in about 370 ce

46

where did the barbarians/invaders/non-romans invade?

gaul, spain and north africa in 410 ce

47

attila

had ultimate hun army and terrorized all of rome except constantinople

48

why were huns kept from advancing?

due to famine and disease in 452 ce

49

453 ce

attila dies but germanic people continue to invade rome

50

476 ce

romulus augustus demoted from his position as the final roman emperor by germanic forces

51

what happened to the empire after romulus augustus was demoted

roman control over western half of empire ceases to exist, however, the eastern half of the byzantine empire continued roman influences and thrived until 1453