Flashcards in rome unit test Deck (51):
painted walls or floors decorated with tiles
example work of a mosaic
"Mosaic Floor Panel", Imperial period, 2nd Century CE
main source of light, open roof
beneath atrium, sunken structure which catches rain water
Roman bedroom/ a private room in the house of a wealthy Roman family
human figure with symbolic characteristics
second style of frescos
realistic and gives the observer a sense of a distant and realistic perspective. The second style would incorporate common architectural structures such as fountains, buildings, and columns.
what is an example of the second style of frescos
"Cubiculum from the villa of P. Fannicus Synistor at Boscoreale."
third style of frescos
monochromatic and flat but can have small, intricate details. (ex: Wall painting on red ground: candelabrum with frieze, from the imperial villa at Boscotrecase)
objects in the distance are smaller than objects up close, creates an illusion of depth and distance
example of linear perspective
Cubiculum (bedroom) from the Villa of P. Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale
objects in distance seem hazy, harder to see than objects up close
example of atmospheric perspective
Wall painting: Polyphemus and Galatea in a landscape, from the imperial villa at Boscotrecase
depicting unaltered realism, including if not slightly embellishing imperfections
determining personality based off of appearance (remember: judging a book by its cover)
dissemination of information to influence the minds of the public
art which depicts a glorified version of something in reality, or a glorified imaginary concept/thing
veristic, physiognomy, wrinkles symbolize wisdom and virtue
idealistic, orator's pose, contrapposto, chestplate depicts divine beings
augustus of prima porta
refers back to the classical (period) style popular during the golden age of ancient greece under pericles in order to send the message that augustus is divine and powerful, and that he will recreate the golden age.
why couldn't the colosseum and aqueduct have been built without the invention of concrete?
they are dome shaped and would collapse or not hold shape otherwise, and would not be able to build up or have arches
who wrote the aeniad and what is the significance of this story?
virgil and story solely about aeneas ergo propaganda as augustus is related to him
semicircle, marble, hard to carve, must be built on hillside, everyone can see the front, tragedies/comedies, competitions amongst poets and actors, place of worship as altar to dionysus could be found on stage
made of concrete, doesn't need to be built on a hill, gladiator fights, chariot races, recreated naval battles as built over a lake, would flood stage
prisoners of wars, slaves, convicts who are forced to fight to the death
temple dedicated to goddess athena, frieze with a depiction of a horde of athenians processing to the temple to perform a sacrifice and relationship between gods and mortals, marble,
temple for all gods, radial building, 100 ce, hadrian (emperor) commisioned it, made of concrete, influence from greek architecture, can walk in, has atrium
uses drawings as language, sketches are always first drafts of sculptures, paintings, etc., left majority of sculptures unfinished, sense of intimacy exuded by sketches.
expressed general uniqueness, life size paintings, portrait drawings, picasso's works and cubism aesthetic are favorite influences due to the distortion of perspective with bright colors
focusing on all of an artist's works, the depiction of the general aesthetic
what is the significance of 44 BCE
julius caesar killed
what marked the end of the pax romana?
the death of emperor marcus aurelius
why did rome's economy decline?
agressive/hostile neighbors interfered with trade, dramatic expansion and no new gold or silver, raised taxes to compensate, produced coins that were made of a minimal amount of silver, if any
drastic decline in value of currency as well as increase of prices
government hired foreigners to fight for money as soldiers gave allegiance not to the empire but to their commanders who fought for rule over rome, but they still had little loyalty to the empire
became emperor in 284 ce and restored rome by ruling stringently but increase the size of the army
how did diocletian solve solve inflation
by setting specific, stagnant prices for goods
how was diocletian portrayed?
like augustus, claimed to be of divinity and had ceremonies dedicated to himself to restore respect to the ruler
how did diocletian divide rome?
into two sections for fear that it was too massive to be controlled by a single ruler, those who spoke latin, and the section that spoke greek ( greece, egypt, syria, and anatolia)
was there equality between diocletian and his co-ruler?
no as the eastern half of rome which was ruled by diocletian had more powerful cities and trade centers
what happened after diocletian retired in 305 ce
civil war broke out immediately, four competators vied against each other for power of rome, among them was constantine
gained control of the west of empire in 312 ce, east in 324 ce making him the full ruler of rome
where did constantine move the capitol of rome to
byzantium (turkey) for trade and war advantages
what caused nomads/germanic tribes to be pushed into roman territory
huns from central asia invaded and pushed nomads up to roman borders in about 370 ce
where did the barbarians/invaders/non-romans invade?
gaul, spain and north africa in 410 ce
had ultimate hun army and terrorized all of rome except constantinople
why were huns kept from advancing?
due to famine and disease in 452 ce
attila dies but germanic people continue to invade rome
romulus augustus demoted from his position as the final roman emperor by germanic forces