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Flashcards in Russia 1 Deck (43):
1

Marx - Revolution

"The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains"

2

1905 Revolution - Tsar distance

"God is high in heaven, the Tsar is far away"

3

Witte - Mercantilism

"There is a radical difference between Russia and a colony: Russia is an independent and strong power. She has the right and the strength not to want to be the eternal handmaiden of states which are developed more economically"

4

Hill - Russo-Japan War

"The incompetence and corruption of the autocracy was shown on a vast scale"

5

Leo Tolstoy - 1905 Revolution

"the general dissatisfaction of all classes with the government...(made it) impossible to maintain the form of government except by violence"

6

Tsar - Confidence

"My people love me"

7

Rasputin - Tsar

"The tsar can change his mind from one minute to the next; he's a sad man, he lacks guts"

8

French Ambassador - Tsarism

"I am obliged to report that at the present moment, the Russian empire is run by lunatics"

9

General Brusilov - Tsar as Commander in Chief

"Everyone knew that Nicholas understood next to nothing about military matters...Faced with a group of soldiers, he was nervous and did not know what to say"

10

Tsarina - February Revolution

"Concessions inevitable. Street fighting continues. Many units gone over to the enemy"

11

Tsar - Abdication

"All around me is treachery, cowardice and deceit"

12

Chamberlin - February Revolution

"The collapse of the Romanov autocracy in March 1917 was one of the most leaderless, spontaneous, anonymous revolutions of all time"

13

Figes - February Revolution

"Collapse is certainly the right word to use, it was not overthrown"

14

Fitzpatrick - February Revolution

"The autocracy collapsed in the face of popular demonstrations and the withdrawal of elite support for the regime"

15

Kerensky - Dual authority

"The Provisional Government had authority without power whilst the Soviet had power without authority"

16

Trotsky - Dual Authority

"The dual powerlessness"

17

Figes - Cause of Collapse

"the obstinate refusal of the tsarist regime to concede reforms turned what should have been a political problem into a revolutionary crisis"


18

Figes - Consequence of 1905

"Many of the younger comrades of 1905 were the elders of 1917. They were inspired by its memory and instructed by its lessons.

19

Pipes - 1905 Revolution

"The 1905 Revolution not only failed to resolve Russia's outstanding problem - estrangement between rulers and ruled - but aggravated it...Russia had gained only a breathing spell

20

David Welch - October Manifesto

"Whether or not you see the October Manifesto as a genuine policy of conciliation, or an attempt to ‘buy off’ the revolutionary movement, it served to split the opposition."


21

CPSU - Bloody Sunday

"On that day the workers received a bloody lesson. It was their faith in the tsar that was riddled by bullets on that day"

22

Petition to Tsar - Bloody Sunday

"We are treated not like humans [but] like slaves who must suffer a bitter fate and keep silent"

23

Fundamental Laws

"The Sovereign Emperor approves laws; and without his approval no legislative measure can become law"


24

Lenin - 1905 Revolution

"dress rehearsal for the October Revolution”

25

General Brusilov - Soldiers

"Our army is more like an ill-trained militia...such men could not be called soldiers"

26

Fitzpatrick - July Days

"They had talked insurrection, in a general way, but not planned it"

27

CPSU - Causes of 1905

"The economic crisis of 1900-03 had aggravates the hardships of the toiling masses. The war intensified them still further."

28

Figes - WW1

"The tsarist regime proved much too rigid and unwieldy, too inflexible and set in its ways, too authoritarian and inefficient to adapt itself to the situation as it changed"

29

Russian Soldier - WW1

"There is not much to eat and what we get is foul. Perhaps we'd be better off dead"

30

Figes - Nicholas to Front

"By moving to the Front, Nicholas merely undermined his own authority in the rear"

31

Shliapnikov - February Revolution

"What revolution? Give the workers a pound of bread and the movement will peter out"

32

Pipes - Survival of Tsarist Regime

"The survival of the tsarist regime ultimately depended upon the loyalty of the army"

33

Pipes - February Revolution (Tsar)

He thought he was facing a rebellion not a revolution"

34

Figes - October Revolution

The October Revolution was an "insurrection" not a Revolution"

35

Hill - Kornilov Affair

"Everyone knew that the Bolsheviks had saved Petrograd from Kornilov"

36

Unknown - Bolshevik Party

"Bolshevik party exerted an influence out of proportion to its numbers"

37

Working Conditions - Figes

It was often this issue of respectful treatment, rather than the bread and butter question of wages, which fuelled workers' strikes and demonstrations.

38

Revolutionary Inclination - Figes

Unable to develop their own independent organisations, they were forced to rely upon the leadership of the revolutionary underground

39

Modernity - Figes

They believed that their power and prestige were being undermined by 'modernity' in all its forms - secular beliefs, Western constitutional ideologies and the new urban class

40

Cause - Figes

The revolution had been caused by the decline of the church's influence

41

Fitzpatrick - Kornilov Affair

Kerensky's standing had been further damaged by his handling of the Kornilov affair, and the government weakened

42

Figes - Kornilov Affair/ June Offensive

sharp deterioration in army discipline

43

Fitzpatrick - Provisional Government

Despite the seriousness of the land problem and the reports of land seizures from the early summer of 1917, the Provisional Government procrastinated on the issue of land reform