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Flashcards in Russia Deck (12)
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1

Size and communication

640,000km from west to east and span across 2 continents
Most roads are mud
Transiberian railway from Moscow to Glasnost

2

The Russian people

19 different ethnicities
Majority Russian 55 million and many Ukrainian Polish and Jewish

3

Social structure

77% population peasants
No middle class and massive economic divide

4

Nobility

The 1% owned 25% of the land they lived in St Petersburg or Moscow and have important roles in the government and army

5

Middle-class

Small mostly merchant and bankers

6

Peasants

Difficult life long hours and poor conditions and wages

7

Urban workers

Most workers were young and male and ex-peasants
1897 census showed literacy of workers was 57.8% twice the national average
Women worked in textiles
High number of work-related deaths

8

Government

Autocracy
Supreme power for the Tsar
Rigid hierarchy

9

Nicholas the second

Wasn’t prepared for the role due to death
Weak
Jew hater
Family man

10

Church

Orthodox church developed its own traditions and customs including mysticism and superstition Gregory Rasputin help the Russian Revolution the church supported the divine right of the tsar and was a Conservative organisation

11

Modernisation

Needed more military power as Russia was poor
It made it difficult to maintain tsarist autocracy due to growth in the middle classes

12

Witte’s policies & problems

Wanted industrialisation to improve communication lies and railways between cities he negotiated foreign investments particularly from finance increase state taxes and taxes on products workers still have poor wages