Flashcards in Russia P40-71 Deck (35)
What was the OGPU?
The OGPU was the Cheka under a different name
When did show trails begin?
When did Stalin enforce Collectivisation?
When was the Great Terror
What is a sovkozy?
A large collective farm run by a manager
What is a kolkhozy?
A State farm run by committees of peasants
What was the usual number of days a person who us work for the sate on collective farms?
140 days in a year
How where tractors and combine harvesters given to the farmers?
They were borrowed by the MTS (machine and tractor stations)
When were peasants given an acre of land for themselves?
Who objected collectivisation?
The kulaks as they were behaving in un-communist ways by making profits and hiring workers. In some places kulak families were much better off than others, but in many places it was hard to tell the difference.
Who were kulaks?
Some kulaks behaved like pre-revolution landlords, thought they were better than other villagers, and treated their labours badly. They were hated and feared. But in many villages the kulaks and villagers trusted each other they were also often the most organised or educated so were respected village leaders.
What did Stalin do when the peasants reacted badly to collectivisation?
He sent out officials to search of hidden crops and tools, is they failed (some were killed trying) he sent to army.
He purged the kulaks and took them to labour camps. If they resisted they were shot.
What was a success of collectivisation?
By 1935 over 90% of farm land was collectivised
By 1935 the steep fall in grain production and numbers of animals began to recover
By 1934 the rationing of bread and many other foods ended
Collectivisation made state com two of food easier
How did peasants react to compulsory collectivisation?
Peasants reacted badly, many of them killed their animals and hid their seed, crops and tools. Some burned their homes, rather than let then be taken for collectivisation. Between 1929-1933 half the pigs and over a quarter of cows in the country were slaughtered.
What was a massive failure of collectivisation?
The famine of 1932-33 where 3 million people starved.
What was the purpose of the five year plans?
The three five years plans focused on heavy industry, building factories and industrial towns.
What was produced in the first five year plan?
Iron, steel, coal, oil and electricity
What was produced in the second five year plan?
Iron, steel, coal, oil, electricity, tractors and combine harvesters
What was produced in the third five year plan?
Luxury products were produced like bikes and radios. This was interrupted by the nazis and ww2
When were the five year plans?
The first five year plan 1928-32
The second five year plan 1933-37
The third five year plan 1938-41
Who was Stakhanov?
He was a coal miner who became famous during the second five year plan because he could ton loads of coal
Was society in the Soviet Union equal?
No it was not. Stain lived better than other members of society, he had a flat in Moscow and several homes in the countryside. He drank and ate well just like the Tsar.
Was Stalin the only one who had extra privileges?
No, his group of officials had extra privileges as well.
Did workers get rewarded in the Soviet Union?
Workers in favour with the state got rewards, tickets to concerts, days off, extra food and better jobs. Workers not in favour with the state got worse housing and a much lower place on waiting lists for operations or nursery places. At worst they became enemies of the state and were sent to camps or regions such as Kazakhstan.
Did Stalin encourage local languages in its literacy drives?
At first he did, posters showed Stalin with different people from different regions. His propaganda stressed the equality of the republics in the Soviet Union. From 1932 Stalin no longer supported regional identity and is was seen as 'counter revolutionary'. The state encouraged 'Russification'
What is Russification?
Creating a dominant Russian culture
What religion did the Soviet Union follow?
In theory people could follow any religion. Atheism was encouraged. People were deported for their beliefs and there were several purges of priests. In 1915 Russia had 54,000 churches and in 1940 there were 500.
What were the living conditions like in the Soviet Union?
Most workers had just one room and shared a kitchen with other people in the flats. Officials got more space and ordinary factory workers got less. The space per person allowed when billing flats for workers steadily dropped.
What is 'progressive piece work' and when was it introduced?
It was introduced in 1934 and it was when workers didn't have a set wedge and were paid by the amount they produced. With the rewards system this encouraged production.
What were work passports?
The state didn't want workers to move around regularly to get better jobs. They introduced work passports where workers could only move jobs with a stamped passport but passport stamps could be forged. Workers could now be sacked and could no longer campaign for better conditions as state managers blocked trade unions.
How did the Soviet Union change the roles of women?
Women moved from domestic work to factory work. There were over 13 million women working in all types of industry by 1940.
What did the state do for the women who had children?
The state provided free childcare until they were old enough to go to school. However there was a long waiting list.
How many people were accused and found guilty of Kirov's murder?
Who were the original 7 members of the Politburo?
Stalin, Trotsky, Rykov, Tomsky, Kamenev, Zinoviev, Bukharin,