Flashcards in Russian Grammar 1 Deck (50)
This is / these are
Here is /here are
Russian Word used to point things far away
But / and ( for slight contrast)
What's 7 letters spelling rule
After consonants г, к, х, ж, ш, щ, ч do not write the letter ы. Whenever an [ы] or [и] sound
follows one of these letters, it is spelled и. This is called 7-letter spelling rule.
What letters indicate the preceding consonant is hard?
а о у э ы - indicate that the preceding consonant is hard .
And ъ after prefixes
What letters indicate that the preceding consonant is soft?
я ё ю е и and ь - indicate that the preceding consonant is soft
What are vowels reduction rules 1 and 2?
Vowel Reduction Rule 1
In the first syllable before the stress the letter о sounds like а
Vowel Reduction Rule 2
Anywhere after the stress and more than one syllable before the stress о & а are pronounced like short а
What are vowels reduction rules 3 and 4 ?
Vowel Reduction Rule 3 :
In the first syllable before the stress the letters е, я are pronounced like и
Vowel Reduction Rule 4 :
Anywhere after the stress and more than one syllable before the stress е, я are pronounced kind of like э
The letters я, ё, ю, е represent what sounds after ( soft ) consonants?
[а, о, у, э] respectively
When are The letters я ё ю е pronounced as two sounds [йа, йо, йу, йе] ?
after ь and ъ :
after a vowel :
At the beginning of the word:
What is the 5 consonants spelling rule?
The 5 Consonant Rule. After ш ж щ ч ц write o if that syllable is accented and e if it is not, e.g. в большом хоршем доме "in a big nice house".
What is the hush spelling rule?
The Hush Rule. after hushes (ш ж щ ч) never write я or ю but always а and у.
In order to
He ( replaces any masculine noun)
She (replaces any feminine noun)
It ( replaces any neuter noun)
They (replaces any plural noun)
When to use это?
For identifying things and people for first time ,then we can refer to them again using (он, она , оно , они)
What are the normal hard stem endings of nouns in nominative singulars of : masculine, feminine and neuter?
Hard ending for masculine singular nominative is with a consonant.
Hard ending for feminine singular nominative is "а".
Hard ending for neuter singular nominative is "о"
What are the normal soft stem endings of nouns in nominative singulars of : masculine, feminine and neuter?
For masculine : "й" or "ь".
For feminine : "я" or "ь"
For neuter : "е" or "ё"
How to find the plural nominative of a masculine singular with a hard stem?
By adding "ы" to the ending
Журнал - дурналы
How to find the plural nominative of a feminine singular with a hard stem?
By replacing the stem ending "а" with "ы"
Лампа - лампы
How to find the plural nominative of a neuter singular with a hard stem?
By Replacing the stem ending "о" with "а"
Письмо - письма