S2 Antihistamines Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > S2 Antihistamines > Flashcards

Flashcards in S2 Antihistamines Deck (23):
1

Cromoglycate

Cromolyn brand
Mast cell "stabilizer"

2

Diphenhydramine

Benadryl brand
H1-receptor antagonist
First generation antihistamine

3

Cimetidine

Tagamet brand
H2-receptor antagonist
Inhibits gastric acid secretion

4

Epinephrine

Functional antagonist of histamine
Causes vasoconstriction
Treats systemic anaphylaxis

5

Chlorpheniramine

Chlor-Trimeton
H1-receptor antagonist
First generation antihistamine

6

Pyrilamine

Histavet-P brand
H1-receptor antagonist
First generation antihistamine

7

Meclizine

Bonine brand
H1-receptor antagonist
First generation antihistamine
With Hydroxyzine

8

Cetirizine

Zyrtec brand
H1-receptor antagonist
Second generation antihistamine

9

Loratidine

Claritin brand
H1-receptor antagonist
Second generation antihistamine
Similar to Fexofenadine
May alleviate some types of pain

10

Fexofenadine

Allegra brand
H1-receptor antagonist
Second generation antihistamine
Similar to Loratidine

11

Hydroxyzine

H1-receptor antagonist
First generation antihistamine
With Meclizine

12

H1 receptor locations & functions

1. Neurons = itching & pain
2. *Smooth muscle = +/- contraction
3. Endothelial & epithelial cells = permeability
4. Immune cells

13

H2 receptor locations & functions

1. Neurons
2. *Parietal cells (stomach) = gastric acid secretion
3. *Heart
4. Endothelial & epithelial cells
5. Immune cells

14

H3 receptor locations & functions

1. Neurons = pre-synaptic inhibition
2. Immune cells

15

H4 receptor locations & functions

1. *Bone marrow
2. *Spleen = eosinophil chemotaxis
3. Immune cells = anti-inflammatory

16

H1 receptor second messenger

Increases intracellular calcium

17

H2 receptor second messenger

Increases cAMP

18

H3 receptor second messenger

Decreases cAMP

19

H4 receptor second messenger

Decreases cAMP

20

Ketotifen

Zaditor brand
H1-receptor antagonist
First generation antihistamine
Binds receptors in the CNS = ocular use

21

Acrivastine

Sempra brand
Alkylamine chemical class
H1-receptor antagonist
Second generation antihistamine

22

Side effects of first generation H1 antihistamines

1. Muscarinic cholinergic effects
a. Xerostomia (dry mouth)
b. Urinary retention
c. Sinus tachycardia (atropine-like)
2. Alpha-adrenergic effects
a. Hypotension
b. Tachycardia

23

Indications for using H1 antihistamines

1. Allergic disease
2. Motion sickness (CNS vomiting centers)
3. Mast cell tumors