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Flashcards in Section 4 Deck (48):
1

Drug: Acetazolamide

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Drug: Acetazolamide

Type? Diuretic

Site of action? Proximal tubule (site 1)

Mechanism of action?  Non-competative inhibition of carbonic anhydrase enzyme

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Decrease introcular pressure (glaucoma)
  2. Urinary alkalization (disolove stones, excrete acidic toxins)

 

Unique characterists?

  • Short-term use only
  • May cause calcium phosphate uroliths

2

Drug: Enalapril

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Drug: Enalapril

Type? ACE inhibitor (vasodilator)

Site of action?

Mechanism of action? Inhibits ACE = reduces formation of angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor)

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Decrease systemic blood pressure
  2. Decrease in left ventricular filling pressure = increased CO (CHF)
  3. Long term reduction in cardiac remodeling

Unique characterists?

  • Risk for hypotension
  • Can enhance effects of diuretics
  • Can decrease GFR
  • Contraindicated with NSAID administration (both drugs reduce GFR)
  • Extra label use in cats
  • Must be activated in the liver

3

Drug: Furosemide

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Drug: Furosemide

Type? Diuretic, specifically "loop-diuretic"

Site of action? Thick ascending loop of Henle (site 2)

Mechanism of action? Blocks NKCC2 transport protein = inhibits Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Decreases ECF volume (acute pulmonary edema)
  2. Increases urine output and loss of K+ (acute renal failure)
  3. Excretion of excess Na+, Cl-, Mg2+ and H+ (ion imbalances)
  4. Decreases pulmonary vascular pressure (exercise induced pulmonary hemmorhage)

 

Unique characterists?

  • Risk of severe dehyration and hypovolumic shock
  • Cats have a narrow dose range
  • Otoxicity
  • Contraindicated with: NSAIDS, glucocorticoids, digitalis

4

Drug: Hydrochlorothiazide

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Drug: Hydrochlorothiazide

Type? Diuretic

Site of action? Early distal tubule (site 3)

Mechanism of action? Blocks NCC transport protein = inhibits NaCl re-absorption

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Any that reqiuires a diuretic
  2. Too much calcium in the urine

Unique characterists?

  • Opposite effect of "loop-diuretics"
  • Less sodium loss than furosemide (loop diuretic)

5

Drug: Spironolactone

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Drug: Spironolactone

Type? Diuretic (postassium sparing)

Site of action? Late distal tubule (site 4)

Mechanism of action? Acts as an aldosterone analog = inhibits expression of sodium channels = K+ is not exchanged for Na+

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Prevent hypokalemia when using thiazides or loop diuretics
  2. Prevents hypokalemia with hyperaldosteronism
  3. Reduces edema secondary to hyper aldosteronism

Unique characterists?

  • Only drug that does not act in within the tubular lumen
  • Not dependant on glomerular filtration
  • Activity is dependant on presence of aldosterone
  • Slower onset and longer duration

6

Drug: Triamterene

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characteristics?

 

Drug: Triamterene

Type? Diuretic (potassium sparing)

Site of action? Late distal tubule and collecting duct (site 4)

Mechanism of action? Blocks sodium channels in principal cells (epithelium)

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Prevents hypokalemia with thiazides or loop diuretics
  2. Prevents hypokalemia with hyperaldosteronism
  3. Reduces edema secondary to hyper aldosteronism

Unique characterists?

  • K+ is not exchanged for Na+ as sodium re-absorption is inhibited
  • Actively secreted into the proximal tubule
  • Faster onset and shorter duration

7

Drug: Atropine, glycopyrrolate & ipratropium

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characteristics?

Drug: Atropine, glycopyrrolate & ipratropium

Type? Bronchodilator (muscarinic receptor blockers)

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Severe asthmatic states

Unique characteristics?

  • Not very effective in animals
  • Ipratropium is most effective
  • Can be combined with other bronchodilators
  • Low bioavailability

8

Drug: Amlodipine

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characteristics?

Drug: Amlodipine

Type? Vasodilator

Site of action? Vascular smooth muscle

Mechanism of action? Blocks calcium channels = decreased Ca2+ = decreased contraction = vasorelaxation

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Decrease systemic blood pressure
  2. Decrease cardiac load

Unique characteristics?

  • Cats = renal hypertension, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, hyperthyroidism
  • Dogs = hypertension and CHF

9

Drug: Carvedilol

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characteristics?

Drug: Carvedilol

Type? Beta-AR antagonist

Site of action? Beta-1 and Alpha-1 AR receptors

Mechanism of action? Reduces chronic NE stimulation on the heart in CHF, anti-oxidant, stimulates Beta-arrestin signaling (improves cardiomyocyte survival)

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Increase ejection fraction
  2. Decrease HR
  3. Decrease other signs of CHF

Unique characteristics?

  • Some individuals have a polymorphism in the Beta-1 ARs = poor prognosis but higher sensitivity to the drug
  • Beta-2 ARs
 in
 a 
conformational state so they can interact with Beta-arrestin

10

Drug: Dobutamine

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characteristics?

Drug: Dobutamine

Type? Positive inotropic drug (catecholamine)

Site of action? Cardiac Beta-1 ARs

Mechanism of action? Stimulates cardiac Beta-1 ARs

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Increase cardiomyocyte contractility
  2. Increase CO
  3. Support BP
  4. Help maintain renal blood flow

Unique characteristics?

  • Dilate renal vasculature at low doses
  • Can also be produced by fenoldmpam
  • Acute heart failure only

11

Drug: Pimobendan (vetmedin)

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characteristics?

Drug: Pimobendan (vetmedin)

Type? Positive inotropic drug (phosphodiesterase inhibitor)

Site of action?

Mechanism of action? Inhibits PDE II &V = increases cAMP = vasodilation = decreased pre-load and afterload

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Vasodilation
  2. Increase cardiomyocyte contractility = increases calcium concentrations
  3. CHF secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy or mitral disease

Unique characteristics?

  •  

12

Drug: Digoxin

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characteristics?

Drug: Digoxin

Type? Digitalis glycoside (mild positive ionotropic agent)

Site of action? Blocks Na+/K+ ATPase

Mechanism of action? Inhibiton of Na+/K+ ATPase = increased intracellular Na+ = decreased Na+/Ca2+ exchange = calcium is retained in the cell

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Increase cardiac contraction amplitude and speed
  2. Prevent propagation of supraventricular arrhythmias (decreased AV conduction)
  3. Decrease HR

Unique characteristics?

  • Lower dose range produces positive iontropy
  • Toxic doses heart is sensitized to catecholamines = arrhythmias
  • Signs of toxicity = vomiting, diarrhea, CNS depression, convulsions, yellow vision
  • Narrow dosage range

13

Methoxyflurane

Isoflurane

Nitrous oxide

Blood solubulity?

Induction & recovery time?

Blood solubulity

  1. Methoxyflurane (highest)
  2. Isoflurane
  3. Nitrous oxide

Induction & recovery time

  1. Methoxyflurane (Longest)
  2. Isoflurane
  3. Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide = vacuum effeect = accelerates enter of other anesthetics

14

Drug: Albuterol & clenbuterol

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characteristics?

Drug: Albuterol (dogs and cats) & clenbuterol (horses)

Type? Bronchodilator

Site of action? Beta-2 AR agonist

Mechanism of action? Stimuation of Beta-2 ARs = increase in diameter of both small and large ariways = increase in mucociliary clearance = decrease in inflammatory mediators

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Reduce bronchoconstriction

Unique characteristics?

  • May cause cardiac arrhythmias

15

Drug: Theophylline (aminophylline)

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characteristics?

Drug: Theophylline (aminophylline)

Type? Bronchodilator (methylxanthines)

Site of action? Phosphodiesterase inhibitor

Mechanism of action? Inhibits phosphodiesterase = decreased cAMP breakdown = decreased intracellular calcium mobilization = also antagonise at adenosine receptors (bronchodilation)

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Dilate small and large ariways
  2. Increase mucociliary clearance
  3. Anti-inflammatory

Unique characteristics?

  • Low therapudic index = risk of toxicity
  • related to chocolate poisoning

16

Drug:

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug:

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

17

Drug: Codeine, butorphanol & dexotromethorphan

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Codeine, butorphanol & dexotromethorphan

Type? Opiate antitussive drugs

Site of action? Brain

Mechanism of action? Decrease sensitivity of the cough center from afferent stimuli from the lungs

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Reduce cough
  2. Reduce airway irritation

Unique characterists?

  • Only codeine depresses respiration and has human abuse potential

18

Drug: Dexotromethorphan

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Dexotromethorphan

Type? Antitussive opioids (D-isomer of codeine)

Site of action? Sigma receptor agonist

Mechanism of action? Unknown

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Antitussive agent

Unique characterists?

  • No opiate analgesic effects
  • Commonly used in small animals
  • In OTC cough preparations

19

Drug: Butorphanol

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Butorphanol

Type? Antitussive

Site of action? Kappa-type opoid receptor agonist

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Antitussive

Unique characterists?

  • Some potential for substance abuse
  • 100X more potent than codeine
  • Used in dogs and horses

20

Drug: Famotidine

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Famotidine (Pepcid)

Type? Gastric acid inhibitor

Site of action? H2-HR antagonist

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Treatment of ulcers

Unique characterists?

  • Most potent drug in group

21

Drug: Misoprostol

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Misoprostol

Type? Cytoprotection & gastric acid inhibitor

Site of action? Prostaglandin E analog

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Mucus protection
  2. HCO3 production
  3. Enhances gastric blood flow
  4. Ulcers

Unique characterists?

  • Prokinetic action in colon = diarrhea

22

Drug: Omeprazole

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Omeprazole (prilosec)

Type? Proton pump inhibitor

Site of action? Gastric H+/K+ ATPase

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Stress related ulcers in horses

Unique characterists?

  • May increase risk of GI infections

23

Drug: Sucralfate

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Su

Drug: Sucralfate

Type? Protectant

Site of action? Binds to ulcerated tissue

Mechanism of action? Polymerizes to a gel at pH < 4

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  • Does not reduce acid output

24

Drug: Emetine

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Su

Drug: Emetine (syrup of ipecac)

Type? Emetic agent

Site of action? Gastric mucosa and CNS

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  • SLOW

25

Drug: Apomorphine

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Su

Drug: Apomorphine

Type? Emeitc agent

Site of action? Agonist at D2-dopamine receptors in the CNS

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  • Potent! Vomiting in 2-10 minutes

26

Drug: Xylazine

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Su

Drug: Xylazine

Type? Emetic agent

Site of action? Alpha2-AR agonist in chemoreceptor trigger zone in brain

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  • Cats?
  • Low doses do not produce sedation

27

Drug: Metoclopramide

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Su

Drug: Metoclopramide

Type? Anti-emetic agent (prokinetic)

Site of action? CNS

Mechanism of action? Blocks D2-dopamine receptors and 5-HT3 receptors at high doses in CTZ

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

28

Drug: Ondansentron

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Su

Drug: Ondansentron

Type? Anti-emeitc drug (newer)

Site of action? Blocks 3 serotinin receptors in CTZ

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Chemotherapy
     nausea
  2. Parvo infection

Unique characterists?

  • Active metabolite = dolasetron
  • Humans = cardiac arrhythmias

29

Drug: Maropitant

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Su

Drug: Maropitant

Type? Anti-emetic drug

Site of action? Blocks G-protein substance P receptors in CTZ

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Borad spectrum anti-emetic

Unique characterists?

  • Few side effects

30

Drug: Bethanechol

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

Su

Drug: Bethanechol

Type? Motility enhancing drug

Site of action? Cholinomimetic

Mechanism of action? Uncoordinated and forceful contraction of GI muscosa

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

31

Drug: Neostigmine

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

SuNeostigmine

Drug: Neostigmine

Type? Motility enchancer

Site of action? Anticholinesterase

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

32

Drug: Ranitidine & Nizatidine

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

SuNeostigmine&&

Drug: Ranitidine & Nizatidine

Type? GI motility enhancer

Site of action? Cholinesterase inhibitor

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

33

Drug:

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

SuNeostigmine

Drug:

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

34

Drug: Metoclopramide

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

SuNeostigmine

Drug: Metoclopramide

Type? Upper GI motility enhancer (benzamide)

Site of action? Blocks D2-dopamine receptor

Mechanism of action? Inhibit smooth muscle relaxation

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

35

Drug: Cisapride

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

SuNeostigmine

Drug: Cisapride

Type? GI motility enhancer (Benzamide)

Site of action? Agonist at 5HT4 receptors along entire GI tract

Mechanism of action? Increase Ach release

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Chronic constapation in cats
  2. Ileus and delayed emptying in dogs

Unique characterists?

  • Risk for cardiac arrhythmias in humans

36

Drug: Erythromycin

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

SuNeostigmine

Drug: Erythromycin

Type? Motilide

Site of action? Agonist at motilin receptors in SM and enteric nerves in GI = stomach and upper small intestine

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1. Increase gastric emptying rate in dogs
  2. Gastroparesis

Unique characterists?

  • No effect in colon!

37

Drug: Lidocaine

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

SuNeostigmine

Drug: Lidocaine

Type? GI motility enhancer

Site of action? Blocks sodium channels in enteric nerves

Mechanism of action? Unclear

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

38

Drug: Mannitol & sorbitol

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Mannitol & sorbitol

Type? Osmotic laxative

Site of action? Intestinal tract

Mechanism of action? Draws water into intestinal tract = increase fecal volume

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

39

Drug: Bisacodyl

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Bisacodyl

Type? Irritant laxative

Site of action? Enteric nervous system in the colon

Mechanism of action? Increases intestinal motility

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

40

Drug: Mineral oil & docusate sodium

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Mineral oil & docusate sodium

Type? Lubricant laxative

Site of action? Fecal surface

Mechanism of action? coats fecal surface; increases surface tension of luminal fluids = increased water content of feces

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

41

Drug: Bismuth subsalicylate

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Bismuth subsalicylate

Type? Mucosal protectand and absorbent

Site of action?

Mechanism of action? Anti-imflammatory, bacteriocidal, and absorption of enterotoxins

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  • Watch for salicylate toxicosis

42

Drug: Aluminum silicate (kaolin)

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Aluminum silicate (kaolin)

Type? Anti-diarrheal

Site of action?

Mechanism of action? Questionable efficacy!

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  • Does not absorb e. coli enterotoxins!

43

Drug: Propantheline, isopropamide, N-but. bromide

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Propantheline, isopropamide, N-but. bromide

Type? Anti-diarrheal (muscarinic cholinergic antagonists)

Site of action? Intestinal mAChRs

Mechanism of action? Decrease molility and inhibit secretion

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

44

Drug: Naloxone

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Naloxone

Type? Pro-diarrhea

Site of action? Antogonist at opioid receptors

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

45

Drug: Loperamide

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Loperamide

Type? Anti-diarrheal (oioate)

Site of action? Peripherial only; no CNS

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  • OTC
  • Toxicity in Collie dogs!

46

Drug: Codeine (GI)

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Codeine (GI)

Type? Anti-diarrheal

Site of action? Both peripheral and CNS

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

47

Drug: Alvimopan & Methylnaltrexone

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?
 

Drug: Alvimopan & Methylnaltrexone

Type? Pro-diarrheal

Site of action? Peripherally-selective opiod antagonists

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •  

48

Drug:

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

Unique characterists?

 

Drug:

Type?

Site of action?

Mechanism of action?

Treatment goal(s)?

  1.  

Unique characterists?

  •