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Flashcards in sac 2b Deck (102):

Training is

- The process of teaching staff to perform their job more productively.
- provides people with the knowledge and skills they need to do a job


Development is

The process designed to build up the skills necessary for future work activities and responsibilities


Development includes

- preparing employees for longer term opportunities
- more general focus than skills training
- Skills for future


Benefits of Training

- Opportunity to gain or grow skill set
- Opportunity for promotion and self improvement
- Improved job satisfaction
- A challenge, opportunity to learn new things


Benefits of Training

- Higher productivity via better job opportunities
- Goals and objectives are easily met
- Reduced costs
- reduced absenteeism, less staff turnover, less errors and accidents


Learning Organisation

- is an organisation that monitors and interprets its environment
- seeks to improve it’s understanding of the relationship between it’s actions and the environment


Levels of analysis to help decide what training is required

Organisational Analysis

The entire business is analysed to decide what training activities are needed to best achieve the strategic objective


Levels of analysis to help decide what training is required

Task Analysis

individual job and task required to perform that job are analysed to determine whether any specific skills are required for a successful performance


Levels of analysis to help decide what training is required

Person Analysis

- Each employee is assessed to determine what kind of training is required.
- helps establish training and development objectives


Performance appraisals can help determine individual needs such as...

- Basic skills
- Awareness of legislation
- Technical/job specific skills
- Interpersonal/communication skills
- Conceptual skills


On the job training

On the workplace premises

- Coaching/mentoring by a supervisor/colleague
- Apprenticeship
- Involvement in planned work activities, special projects and committees
- Job rotation in or between department


On the job training

- Employee is being trained on the specific tools or equipment they will be using
- able to practice under the supervision of more experience staff acting as their coach or mentor
- is tailored to meet specific needs of the business

- may not be planned properly and to disjointed in its delivery making it difficult for employees to grasp information
- Bringing an external trainer into the workplace may not have the knowledge, skills and understanding with the equipment and practices at the business


Off the job training

off the workplace premises

- Information presentation style (lectures written and visual)
- Information processing style (sit together and process information, mind map)
- Simulations (visual games and case studies)


Off the job training

- wider range of skills can be taught
- Learning from specialists and experts
- Less opportunity to be interrupted by workplace issues

- More expensive if paying course fees transport and accommodation
- Lost working time
- Employees with new skills/qualification may leave the business to gain a job elsewhere


What is performance management...

Improving business objectives by linking the business performance objectives to individual performance


Performance Appraisals

is the formal assessment of how efficient and effective an employees is in performing their role in the business.


Performance Appraisals
5 Main Objectives

1. Provides feedback from management to employees regarding work performance
2. Acts as a measurement to determine if employee requires pay rise or promotion
3. Helps monitor employee selection
4. Identifies employee training and development needs
5. Identifies new objectives and puts a plan for future performance


Methods of personal appraisal

- Essay method
- Critical incident method
- Comparison method

These methods help formalise feedback and should be discussed with the employee


Management by objective

- Processes where management and employees agree on a set of goals for each employee
- individual goals contribute to the goals of the business


Management by objective
The process includes

- Measuring progress to achieve the goals
- Managers use SMART goals to achieve these objectives


Steps to MBO (5)

Is a constant rotation
1. Business objectives are clearly defined
2. Individual goals are negotiated
3. Regular monitoring
4. Performance feedback
5. Performance appraisal to achieve goals


Employee self evaluation

- employees carrying out a process of self assessment based on an agreed set criteria
- should look at the employees career aspirations for the future


Employee Observation

The aim is to get feedback from a variety of different parties to arrive at a picture of past and current performance


Employee Observation
360 degree feedback

- used to evaluate the performance of managers and supervisors, by getting input from their subordinates, supervisors and superiors
- Helps identify strengths and weaknesses
- Focus on how employee works as part of a team
- Helps to evaluate leadership, teamwork and interpersonal skills


Termination is..

- The ending of employment of an employee
- process is generally handled by the HR manager, who needs to make sure the employee is treated fairly and is within the law


Voluntary termination

The individual chooses what they plan to do when it comes to employment


Involuntary termination

When the organisation decides to terminate your employment


Retirement - Voluntary

When an employee decides to give up full time or part time work and is no longer part if the labour force


Resignation - Voluntary

- Is the voluntary ending of employment by the employee ‘quitting’ their job

- employee needs to give 4 weeks notice when they plan to resign


Resignation - Voluntary examples

- Offered a promotion in another business
- start own business
- Look for other challenges
- A change of lifestyle


Cost of voluntary termination on the business

- Loss of talent/knowledge
- Cost of replacement
- Decline in morale
- Break down effective teams
- Productivity can either increase or decrease


Redundancy - involuntary

- Occurs when a person's job no longer exists,
-usually due to technological changes, a business restructure


Voluntary redundancy

- Occurs when the business wants to reduce the size and/or nature of the workforce
- Employees are informed and can nominate themselves for a redundancy


Involuntary redundancy

- Happens when you get asked to leave the business against his/her will
- employee is not at fault



Is when an employee loses their job due to a lack of sufficient work to keep them occupied


HR procedures in relation to redundancy and retrenchment

- HR managers must follow the correct procedures when making employees redundant or issuing a retrenchment
- Ease employees throw the emotional process


HR procedures in relation to redundancy and retrenchment

procedures may include

- Providing the correct information to employees
- Consultation process
- Time off to look for new work
- Redundancy/severance pay
- retraining


Dismissal - involuntary

When an employee's behaviour is considered unacceptable they can be dismissed


Summary dismissal

- the most serious form of dismissal
- it's when an employee commits a serious breach of an employment contract


Dismissal on notice

- when the employee is not performing the job satisfactory
- may be identified during an appraisal
- more common


Impact of Involuntary termination Advantages/Disadvantages

- Cutting of non-productive employees
- Reduction in costs
- Change in structure of the business

- Loss of talent
- Decline in moral
- Breakdown of effective teams


Unfair Dismissal

When an employee is dismissed because the employer has discriminated against them in some way


Things you cannot be dismissed for

- Absence from work due to illness/injury
- Belonging or not belonging to a union
- Race, colour, sexual preference, nationality, religion


Fair work commission Australia

Is Australia's national workplace relations tribunal


Fair work commission Australia
Its role

To assist employees and employers to maintain fair and productive workplace


When can you use the Fair Work Commission

- Must have worked for the organisation for a minimum of 12 months
- Wages must be covered by an award, set salary or agreement
- Earn less than $136,700 per year
- employee must believe their terminated was harsh, unjust or unreasonable
- employee must apply within 21 days of the dismissal


In a case the fair work commission they must consider

- Was there a valid reason for dismissal of the employee
- Was the employee given notice? Of the reason and given an opportunity to respond
- If the dismissal related to poor performance has the employee been warned about that performance
- Any other factors that may be relevant


fair work commission
How the process works

- FWC will try to conciliate both sides on the matter by helping resolved the matter on mutual agreement
- If a resolution cannot help an arbitration hearing is required
- If the dismissal is deemed to be unfair, FWC can order the employer to reinstate the employee or compensate them for up to 26 weeks pay


fair work commission
Who is at the meeting?

- The HR manager
- Terminated employee and support person
- Conciliator from fair work commission



- Remuneration
- Any accrued annual leave
- Long service leave
- If they are retrenched they are entitled to severance/redundancy


Transition issues

when employees find it hard to move from on job to another or leaving the labour force.

- retiring from the workplace need assistance to organise their finances
- Outplacement to help employees find a job


Workplace relations

Is focused on the relationship between employers and employees


Workplace relations
4 categories

1. contractual
2. emotional
3. physical
4. practical


Workplace relations

- Job description
- work conditions and hours
- rate of pay
- OH&S
- policies and procedures


Workplace relations

Emotional health of employees
- stress/work life balance
- community participation
- no bullying
- is the workplace safe


Workplace relations

Physical component
- office layout
- factory, distribution


Workplace relations

- Is the job practical
- is the process practical
- day to day running
- does it make sense
- does it flow


trade union

An organisation formed to represent and protect the rights of workers in a particular industry


What the union does for its members

- Employees pay a subscription fee.
- Negotiates and bargains on their behalf during the collective bargaining process
- Argues employees cases during hearings
- Provides advice and support
- Provides information to members on matters relevant to their workplace situation


Collective Bargaining

Involves determining the terms and conditions of employment through direct negotiation between unions and employers


Shop steward

- employee at a workplace is elected by local union members to represent them
- act as the first point of conduct for an employee with their trade union


shop steward

role is to liaise with management and the union regarding workplace issues


shop steward
How their role works

- individual employee approaches their shop steward first
- may choose to take up the matter directly with management/HR or straight to union executive


Union executive

- people who are elected to run the union on a day to day basis
- represent members in negotiations with employers


Two key unions in Victoria

1. Australian council of Trade Unions (ACTU)
2. Victorian Trade Hall Council (VTHC)


Role of the employer

Employers and HR manager handle employee relation issues on a daily basis


Employer associations

- Organisations that represent and assist employer groups
- were originally created to respond to unions and make sure employers could work together with a common voice


Three types of Employer Associations

1. Industry associations
2. Professional associations
3. Broad based or peak bodies


Industry associations

Made up of employers from the same industry

Master Builders Association


Professional associations

Made up of members of a profession

Financial Planning Association


Broad based or peak bodies

A large number of employees from a variety of industries

Victorian Chamber of commerce


The role of employer associations

- Represent employers in industrial relations cases and collective bargaining over wages and conditions
- Advise employers of rights and obligations
- Acts as a spokesperson


The role of the Human Resources manager (5)

1. Negotiate employment agreements
2. Training other managers/supervisors
3. Managing day to day procedures (new staff inductions)
4. Making sure key terms of the agreement have been implemented
5. Dealing with disputes and conflicts


Negotiating employee agreements (7)

1. Be aware of all relevant awards and legal requirements
2. Ensure all relevant information is available to employee representatives
3. Consult widely
4. Keep an open mind
5. Plan for the big picture
7. Make sure you take care in the wording of the agreement
7. Lodge the agreement


Good workplace relations look like...

A commitment for management and employees to create a common goal and work ethic to achieve organisational goals


Role of Government and Government Organisations
5 key roles of the government

1. Legislator
2. Employer
3. Economic Manager
4. Administration of Government Policies on Employee relations
5. Representative of Australia in the international arena



State and federal parliament pass laws which provide the legal framework for employee operations



Federal and state government employ ⅓ of Australian workers


economic manager

government is concerned that wages don't lead to rising pressure in the economy


Administration of Government Policies on Employee relations

government guidelines and information on employee relations


Representative of Australia in the international arena

Australia is a foundation member of the International Labour Organisation


The Fair Work Commission can

- Vary awards
- Approve workplace agreements
- Decide on unfair dismissals
- Resolve workplace disputes


Fair Work Ombudsman

role is to promote happy, productive and cooperative workplace relations and make sure all workplaces comply with Australian Laws


Fair Work Division of the Federal Court and the Federal Circuit Court of Australia

- Have jurisdiction to hear matters under Federal Workplace Relation Laws
- someone has breached the Fair Work Act they may get a fine or reimburse employees who have been underpaid



- Legally binding minimum requirements for wages and condition in certain industries
- Reviewed every 4 years by the Fair Work Commission
- are legal requirements


Specifications in each award

1. Minimum wages
2. Working conditions and overtime
3. Meal breaks
4. Holiday and leave
5. Penalty rates and allowances
6. Procedure to resolve disputes and termination
7. Superannuation
8. Annual leave


Enterprise agreement

- an agreement that is directly negotiated between the employer and employee at enterprise level
- can be made to suit one group or a variety of groups of employees



Employees withdraw their labour and production stops

- Strikes are illegal and subject to prosecution (unprotected action)
- Strikes are legal during the period of enterprise bargaining (protected action)


How an enterprise agreement works

- must be approved by a majority vote by the employees affected
- Must be registered and approved by the Fair Work Commission


Individual Employment Contracts

- individual can sign a contract with their employer outlining their wages and conditions
- must be better than the minimum award


Common law individual (employment) contract

- Covers those employees who are not under any award or collective/enterprise agreements
- Are secret
- Not open to public scrutiny


Process of determining wages and conditions

negotiate wages and conditions lies with the individual employers and employees/unions who use enterprise bargaining to negotiate agreements


Dispute resolution/grievance procedure

a formal systematic process that allows employees to complain about matters that affect them and their work


Disputes can be resolved through (4)

1. negotiated outcome where a settlement is reached within the business
2. mediated outcome where an independent mediator help parties talk about the issues and arrive at their own agreement
3. Conciliation: when a third party suggests outcomes
4. Arbitration where court decides how something will be resolved and makes a decision


The process of dispute resolution (5)

1. Employees/unions meet with management to outline the problem
2. Management listen and try to resolve the problem
3. If there is NO resolution the dispute is taken to an independent body for mediation
4. mediation fails, the matter is referred to the FWC for conciliation
5. conciliation fails, the matter is arbitrated by the FWC. A legally binding decisions is made by the FWC



workers refuse to do something or deal specifically with someone


picket line

are protests that take place outside the workplace


work to rule

workers refuse to do anything but the bare minimum required


types of performance management (4)

1. Management by objective
2. performance appraisal
3. self evaluation
4. employee observation (360 degree feedback)


3 ways employees wages and conditions can by established

1. awards
2. enterprise agreement
3. individual agreement


mediation advantages and disadvantages

- much faster and cheaper way to resolve disputes
- parties involved have to agree on the outcome of their disputes, both more likely to leave satisfied with the process and decision.

- not appropriate if there is a power imbalance between the parties
- It's not a legally binding decision


Arbitration advantages and disadvantages

- decision is legally binding
- more useful option if there is a power imbalance as a decision is imposed upon both parties

- More costly as the parties have to pay the fees of the arbitrator used
- one parties may not agree to the decision reached by the arbitrator