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Flashcards in Sanitation Deck (83):
1

How are infectious agents transmitted

Urine
Feces
Saliva
Inhalation
Skin
Sex

2

What different viruses are there

Viruses
Bacteria
Fungus
Parasites
Rickettsia

3

Does one medication kill all infections

No

4

5 routes of transmission

Aerosol
Oral
Direct contact
Fomites
Vector-borne; sexual if intact

5

Aerosol

Spread by air; inhalation of droplets containing pathogen (coughing, sneezing)

6

Oral

Ingestion of food/h20 containing infected material

7

Direct contact

Spread directly from animal to human through open wounds, mucous membranes, skin

8

Fomites

Spread by contamination of non-living surface (shoes, clothing, equipment, counters)

9

Vector borne

Occurs when insect picks up disease from animal to a person or vise versa

10

Contagious

Transfer from one person to another

11

Zoonotic

Disease that can be transmitted from animal to a person or vise versa

12

6 groups of people at risk of getting sick from zoonotic disease

Infants/children under 5 years
Elderly
Pregnant woman
People undergoing cancer treatment
Transplant patients
Immunosuppressive diseases

13

How to prevent risks of zoonotic diseases

Vaccinate
Feed good quality/disease free food
Prevent external/internal parasites
Keep well groomed

14

Animals most at risk for carrying zoonotic diseases

Monkeys
Reptiles
Wildlife/strays
Unvaccinated/young animals
Birds

15

What animals have the best chance of passing zoonotic diseases

All animals

16

How to avoid contracting zoonotic diseases at work

Hand washing
Limit staff contacting infectious animals
Wear gloves
Dispose of infectious waste
Follow proper disinfection protocols

17

Ways to avoid zoonotic diseases

Handwashing inbetween patients and people
Skin barrier, gloves especially if have open wounds
Isolating infectious animals
Dispose of biohazards waste
Make sure clinic cleaned/disinfected thoroughly

18

Bacteria definition.

Single celled microorganism (need microscope to see)

19

Cultures and sensitivities

The process of growing bacteria in order to test its sensitivity to various antibiotics
Takes a while, done at off site lab

20

Spores, bacteria

Some bacteria can form spores which are highly resistant to being killed in the environment and disinfectants

21

Examples of spore bacteria

Salmonella
Bordetella

22

Viruses

Very basic organism packages of protein that can produce within a host (require host such as animal/plant to replicate)

23

Enveloped viruses

Help virus enter host
Sensitive to drying out, heat, disinfection
Need to transfer from one host to the other
Can change rapidly to evade a host immune system.

24

Animal specific enveloped viruses

Para-influenza
Rabies
FIV

25

Non-enveloped viruses

Can live in environment much longer
Less adaptable in host
Lack of envelope means it uses other ways to enter host
Much harder to kill in environment
Isolation, major cleaning protocol

26

Examples of non-enveloped viruses

Parvo
Feline panleukopenia

27

Two categories of fungal infections

Cutaneous
Systemic

28

Cutaneous

Skin disease
Ringworm, yeast

29

Systemic

Wide spread infection throughout body, lungs, liver, brain
Much more life threatening
Warmer environments
Blastomycosis, cryptococcus

30

Common dog vaccines

DA2PP
Distemper
CAV-1 and CAV-2
Para-influenza
Parvo
Rabies

31

Is para-influenza considered a vaccine

No, often part of combo vaccine

32

Common cat vaccines

FVRCP
Feline rhinotracheitis
Calici
Panleukemia
Rabies

33

Common ferret vaccines

Rabies
Distemper

34

What do vaccinations do

Boost antibody levels in animals and people which allows them to fight off infection

35

How are antibody levels determined

Vaccine type
Health status of pet
If medications (steroids ) given

36

Who do we not vaccinate

Sick animals who are less capable of producing adequate antibody response

37

Why are several boosters given to young animals

Interference with maternal antibodies in young animals
Antibodies in mother's milk will not allow full response to vaccine
Remain until 14-16 weeks

38

Canine distemper

Highly contagious
Often fatal in unvaccinated dogs
Shed in all secretions
Attacks brain, skin, respiratory tract
Supportive care, fluids needed

39

Vaccine for distemper

DA2PP vaccine 1-3 year forms

40

Parvovirus core vaccine

Spread by stool
Immunosuppressive/puppies most commonly infected
SNAP test to diagnose
Hospitalization

41

Hepatitis core vaccine

Caused by adenovirus 1 (Cav 1) rare due to vaccination
Shed in urine /secretions for many months
Part of DA2PP vaccine

42

What is the most important zoonotic disease in the world and why is it less common now

Rabies
Because we pay attention to it

43

Where is rabies the most common in Canada and what kind of animals most commonly carry it

Ontario
Bats, foxes, skunks, raccoons (wildlife)

44

When to give rabies vaccines

Between 3-6 months
Boost at a year
Then every 1-3 years

45

How is rabies prevented in animals

Vaccines prevent disease transmission
Some programs vaccinate wild /stray animals
Quarantine if concern with animal bite

46

How is rabies prevented in people

Wash wound vigorously if bitten, see physician
Any dog who bites person quarantined for 10 days
Rabies vaccinations recommended for VOAs

47

When are human vaccinations recommended

People who are more at risk of exposure
Vets
Aht
Voa

48

Kennel cough non core

Bordetella
Many bacteria/viruses involved
Cough/secretions
Vaccinate show dogs, boarding, kennels/day cares, dog parks, groomers

49

How are vaccinations for bordetella given

Intranasal
Intraoral
Injectible

50

What is the vaccine for bordetella called

Para-influenza + CAV-2 (Da2PP core vaccine)

51

Canine coronavirus non core

Similar to Parvo symptoms
Dogs in close housing/showing animals (kenneled)

52

Leptospirosis non core

Urine (drinking water, skin)
Zoonotic

53

Leptospirosis non core

Urine (drinking water, skin)
Zoonotic

54

Lyme disease non core

Spread by infected ticks
Usually dogs/people , tick season (warmer months)
5-10 hours for tick to spread infection
Vaccine for at risk dogs

55

What to do if old client asks for vaccines

Check what vaccines they are due for

56

What to do if new client needs vaccine

Recommend they bring previous records or have client contact previous clinic to fax records

57

When are puppy/kitten vaccinations done

8, 12 and 16 weeks

58

When are puppy/kitten vaccinations done

8, 12 and 16 weeks

59

When are vaccinations typically boosted

1 year and 1 or 3 year vaccinations

60

How often are KC vaccinations done

Can be done every 6 months

61

Active immunity

Animal exposed to disease agent (or vaccine) and responds by producing antibodies to protect that animal against that agent
Vaccines never work as well as actual infection (reasons boosters needed at various times)

62

Passive immunity

When immunity from 1 animal gets passed to another
Mother passes antibodies to offspring through placenta

63

Signs of anaphylactic shock

Vomiting, swollen face, pale gums, difficulty breathing within 10-20 minutes of vaccine
Notify vet asap
Marble sized bump
Anti-inflammatory, anti-histamine

64

Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis AKA herpes-core

Common, similar to calici virus
Not zoonotic
Discharge, fomites

65

Calici-core

Very common
Part of FVRCP

66

Panleukopenia-core

Feline distemper
Direct contact, fomites
Caused by parvovirus
Attacks WBC

67

Chlamydia

Non core
Range of possible infections/host

68

Feline leukemia

Non core
FeLV - most important cause of cancer
Saliva transmission/mothers milk
Stress increases chances

69

FIP

Non core
Feline enteric coronavirus causes problem
Catteries- young/old/immunosuppressed

70

FIV

Non core
Cat HIV
Deep cat bites
Can pass through placenta

71

Dog vaccines

DA2PPU
Rabies
CV
Bordetella
Kennel cough
Lepto

72

Dog vaccines at 8 weeks

DA2PPU

73

12 weeks dog vaccines

DA2PPU
Kennel cough

74

Dog vaccines 16 weeks

DA2PPU
Rabies

75

When is DA2PPU boosted

1 year then
1-3 years

76

When is rabies boosted

1 year later
Then every 1-3 years

77

Lyme

Given and boosted in 1 month then every year

78

Feline vaccinations

FVCRP
FelV
FIV
Rabies

79

Cat 8 week vaccinations

FVRCP

80

Cat vaccinations 12 weeks

FVRCP
FeLV

81

Cat vaccines 16 weeks

FVRCP
Rabies

82

FVRCP boosters

Boosted at 1 year then every 1-3 years

83

When is FeLV boosted

Yearly i