Flashcards in SAQ 2011 Deck (34)
What is present in segmental bronchi but not respiratory bronchiole?
What 3 things comprise a respiratory acinus?
resp bronchiole, alveolar duct + alveolus
what part of reps tract lies behind sternal angle?
anatomical regions of the stomach
cardia, fundus, body, antrum, pylorus
which cell types produce:
- Intrinsic factor
Where in the stomach are the cells most commonly found
G - antrum
Parietal - body and funds
Chief - body, fundus and pylorus
ECL - gastric glands in the vicinity of parietal cells
What two things other than gastrin mediate release of HCl
histamine and Acetylcholine
Which glucocorticoid is most common in man?
which 2 anatomical areas are involved in glucocorticoids' negative feedback loop?
hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
what 2 hormones do glucocorticoids inhibit?
ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone
CRH - corticotropin-releasing hormone
Which hormone from pituitary gland stimulates the release of glucocorticoids and what class of receptor does it bind to?
ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone. Binds to protein coupled receptor.
(all hypothalamic and pituitary hormones act on G-protein coupled receptors)
wt divided by height squared
3 conditions that are exacerbated or caused by weight gain
CHD, osteoporosis, diabetes
2 imdv reasons that are causing the increase of childhood obesity
technology development - video games, sedentary lifestyle
2 factors contributing to the obesogenic lifestyle
driving instead of walking
fast food/unhealthier food
what is recommended daily intake of fruit and veg?
at least 5 portions
2 pituitary hormones influencing menstrual cycle?
FSH - folicular stimulating hormone
LH - luteinising hormone
how does Progesterone act on the uterus
thickening the lining (to prevent miscarriage)
preventing uterine smooth muscle contraction
3 typical histological features of a biopsy of a mid-secretory phase endometrium (normal)
spiral arteries forming
glands becoming tortuous
what hormone does preg test look for?
hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin
2 effects oestrogen has on the endometrium
uterine smooth muscle growth
softening of cervix and pelvic ligaments
by 28th week what 3 changes would there be in embryo's Cardioresp development?
day 22 - heart beat
wk 24 - surfactant
wk 20 - ductus arteriousus opens
1 hormone from pituitary and 1 from chorion/decidua that induce labour
posterior pituitary - oxytocin
chorion/decidua - prostaglandins
what anatomical site is affected in parkinsons?
3 other components of Basal ganglia (not SN)
caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus
what site does brain stimulation affect?
what is the neurotransmitter defect in hunting tons?
wasting in thenar muscles and loss of sensation in the the thumb and 1st 2 fingers. which nerve is compressed and by which structure?
medial nerve and flexor retinaculum
4 features of pain as identified by the international pain society
pain = an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with an a actual or potential damage to tissue.
nociception, pain reception, suffering, pain behaviour
how do men and women differ in their responses to pain?
women report pain more readily but can tolerate more pain than males
pts calcium is low but phosphate is normal. 2 systemic hormones responsible for these abnormalities?
parathyroid hormone - chief cells in PT gland
calcitonin - C cells in thyroid
3 ways that the mucous membranes of the upper RT and upper GT contribute to innate immunity
mucu-cilliary escalator wafts to top of oesophagus
low pH in stomach of HCl degrades swallowed stuff
mucous traps bacteria
2 areas of the body with low pH to combat bacteria
vagina and stomach