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Flashcards in SAQ 2011 Deck (34)
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1

What is present in segmental bronchi but not respiratory bronchiole?

Cartilage

2

What 3 things comprise a respiratory acinus?

resp bronchiole, alveolar duct + alveolus

3

what part of reps tract lies behind sternal angle?

carina t4

4

anatomical regions of the stomach

cardia, fundus, body, antrum, pylorus

5

which cell types produce:
- gastrin
- HCl
- Intrinsic factor
- pensinogen

- histamine
- somatostain

G cells
Parietal
Parietal
Chief cells

Enterchromaffin-like
D cells

6

Where in the stomach are the cells most commonly found

G - antrum
Parietal - body and funds
Chief - body, fundus and pylorus
ECL - gastric glands in the vicinity of parietal cells

7

What two things other than gastrin mediate release of HCl

histamine and Acetylcholine

8

Which glucocorticoid is most common in man?

cortisol

9

which 2 anatomical areas are involved in glucocorticoids' negative feedback loop?

hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

10

what 2 hormones do glucocorticoids inhibit?

ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone

CRH - corticotropin-releasing hormone

11

Which hormone from pituitary gland stimulates the release of glucocorticoids and what class of receptor does it bind to?

ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone. Binds to protein coupled receptor.

(all hypothalamic and pituitary hormones act on G-protein coupled receptors)

12

BMI calculation

wt divided by height squared

13

3 conditions that are exacerbated or caused by weight gain

CHD, osteoporosis, diabetes

14

2 imdv reasons that are causing the increase of childhood obesity

technology development - video games, sedentary lifestyle

15

2 factors contributing to the obesogenic lifestyle

driving instead of walking
fast food/unhealthier food

16

what is recommended daily intake of fruit and veg?

at least 5 portions

17

2 pituitary hormones influencing menstrual cycle?

FSH - folicular stimulating hormone
LH - luteinising hormone

18

how does Progesterone act on the uterus

thickening the lining (to prevent miscarriage)
preventing uterine smooth muscle contraction

19

3 typical histological features of a biopsy of a mid-secretory phase endometrium (normal)

stromal oedema
spiral arteries forming
glands becoming tortuous

20

what hormone does preg test look for?

hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin

21

2 effects oestrogen has on the endometrium

uterine smooth muscle growth
softening of cervix and pelvic ligaments

22

by 28th week what 3 changes would there be in embryo's Cardioresp development?

day 22 - heart beat
wk 24 - surfactant
wk 20 - ductus arteriousus opens

23

1 hormone from pituitary and 1 from chorion/decidua that induce labour

posterior pituitary - oxytocin
chorion/decidua - prostaglandins

24

what anatomical site is affected in parkinsons?

substantia nigra

25

3 other components of Basal ganglia (not SN)

caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus

26

what site does brain stimulation affect?

subthalamic nucleus

27

what is the neurotransmitter defect in hunting tons?

GABA

28

wasting in thenar muscles and loss of sensation in the the thumb and 1st 2 fingers. which nerve is compressed and by which structure?

medial nerve and flexor retinaculum

29

4 features of pain as identified by the international pain society

pain = an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with an a actual or potential damage to tissue.

nociception, pain reception, suffering, pain behaviour

30

how do men and women differ in their responses to pain?

women report pain more readily but can tolerate more pain than males

31

pts calcium is low but phosphate is normal. 2 systemic hormones responsible for these abnormalities?

parathyroid hormone - chief cells in PT gland
calcitonin - C cells in thyroid

32

3 ways that the mucous membranes of the upper RT and upper GT contribute to innate immunity

mucu-cilliary escalator wafts to top of oesophagus

low pH in stomach of HCl degrades swallowed stuff

mucous traps bacteria

33

2 areas of the body with low pH to combat bacteria

vagina and stomach

34

one oxygen dependent method phagocytes used to kill ingested material?

Reactive oxygen species