Flashcards in SB1: Key Concepts In Biology Deck (157)
What are prokaryotic cells?
Small, simple cells without a nucleus
What are prokaryotes?
Single-celled prokaryotic organisms
What are eukaryotic cells?
Complex cells that contain nucleus and other sub cellular structures
What is the role of the nucleus?
Controls activities of the cell
Name the sub cellular structure where respiration takes place
Which stage of protein synthesis are ribosomes involved in?
Second stage (translation)
What is the function of the cell wall?
A rigid structure that supports and strengthens plant cells
What is cell sap made from?
Weak solution of sugar and salts dissolved in water
What is the function of the solution contained inside the vacuole?
To maintain internal pressure of a cell, to provide support
What is the function of the chlorophyll contained inside chloroplasts?
To absorb light energy needed for photosynthesis
Name the parts of a bacterial cell
~ cell membrane
~ cell wall
~ singular circular strand of chromosomal DNA
~ plasmid DNA
Name the part of a bacterial cell that controls the cells replication
Singular circular strand of chromosomal DNA
Name the small loops of DNA found in many bacterial cells
What type of information is contained within the plasmids?
Describe what a flagellum is
Long hair-like structures
Give two reasons why bacterial cells find it beneficial to have a flagellum
(1) move towards areas of beneficial condition eg. Those high in nutrients and oxygen
(2) can move away from areas of harmful conditions eg. Chemicals, heat
Explain why multicellular organisms contain many different types of cells
Each individual cell cannot carry out every life process so cells become specialised to do different jobs
What word is used to describe these different types of cells?
What is the structure of each type of cell related to?
It’s specific function
Name the four types of animal cells that you need to know how their structure s linked to their specific function
~ egg cell
~ sperm cell
~ small intestine cell
~ ciliated epithelial cell
Name five adaptations of a sperm cell
~ long tail
~ streamlined shape
~ mitochondria concentrated area at base of tail
~ haploid nucleus of male DNA
Name the adaptation that propels a sperm cell forward
Name the adaptation that provides the energy for the tail
Mitochondria concentrated area at base of tail
Name the adaptation that makes it easier for a sperm cell to move
Name the part of the sperm cell that contains enzymes
What is the function of the enzymes found in the acrosome?
To digest the cell membrane of the egg
Where is the acrosome found?
In the front tip of the head
What is the function of a sperm cell?
To transport male DNA to female DNA found in the egg
Name three adaptations of the egg cell
~ high nutrient content
~ haploid nucleus
~ cell membrane can change structure