SB7: Animal Coordination, Control And Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

GCSE Biology - Paper 1 + 2 Quick Questions (ones got wrong) > SB7: Animal Coordination, Control And Homeostasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in SB7: Animal Coordination, Control And Homeostasis Deck (29)
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1

What are hormones?

Chemical molecules released directly into the blood to regulate bodily processes / chemical messengers that travel in the blood to activate cells in target organs

2

Name six endocrine glands of the body

- pituitary gland
- thyroid gland
- pancreas
- adrenal glands
- ovaries
- testes

3

Explain why the pituitary gland is known as the ‘master‘ gland

It produces many hormones that regulate the body and many of the hormones act on other glands to stimulate production of other hormones

4

What does thyroxine (the hormone produced by the thyroid gland) regulate?

Rate of metabolism, heart rate and temperature

5

What is the role of insulin in the body?

To regulate the blood glucose level

6

Name the response that adrenaline is involved in

The ‘fight or flight‘ response

7

State what oestrogen (the hormone released by the ovaries) controls

Menstrual cycle

8

State what testosterone (the hormone released by the testes) controls

Puberty and sperm production in males

9

Compare the differences between nerves and hormones

HORMONES
- slower acting
- act on the body for a long time
- act in a more general way
NERVES
- fast acting
- act for only a short time
- act on a very precise area

10

Name the hormone whose release is stimulated by the sex hormones

Growth hormone

11

Where does the growth hormone stimulate cells to divide?

Muscles and bones

12

What does the growth hormone stimulate the digestive system to do?

Absorb calcium ions used to make strong bones

13

Name the four hormones produced by the pituitary gland

- ACTH
- FSH
- LH
- growth hormone

14

Use a flowchart to describe how a change in the amount of sex hormone produced during puberty in females leads to an increase in growth

Ovaries secrete more oestrogen into the circulating blood —> oestrogen stimulates pituitary gland to release greater amounts of growth hormone —> growth hormone stimulates muscle and bones to increase the rate of cell division (rate of growth)

15

What happens when your brain detects danger or stress?

Brain sends nerve impulses to the adrenal glands

16

What does adrenaline increase the supply of to cells?

Oxygen and glucose

17

What is caused by adrenaline binding to specific receptors in the heart?

Heart muscle contracts with more force and frequency

18

What does adrenaline binding to specific receptors in the heart (casing the heart muscles to contract with more force and frequency) increase?

Heart rate and blood pressure

19

What do muscle cells receive more of due to the increased blood flow to them?

More oxygen and glucose

20

Why do muscle cells need more oxygen and glucose?

Increased respiration for muscle contraction

21

What is caused by adrenaline binding to receptors in the liver?

Liver breaks down glycogen stores into glucose which is released into the blood

22

What does adrenaline binding to receptors in the liver do to the blood glucose level?

Increases it

23

Explain why it is important for adrenaline to bind to receptors in the liver to happen during the ‘fight or flight‘ response

To fuel respiration in the muscle cells for contraction

24

Describe what happens to blood vessels leading to muscles when the amount of adrenaline in the blood is increased

The diameter of the blood vessels widens

25

Explain why the diameter of blood vessels leading to muscles widens when the amount of adrenaline in the blood increases

To increase blood flow to muscles

26

Describe what happens to blood vessels leading to other organs (eg. the stomach) when the amount of adrenaline in the blood increases

The diameter of the blood vessels narrows

27

Explain why the diameter of blood vessels leading to other organs narrows when the amount of adrenaline in the blood increases

To decrease the blood flow to the other organs and increase overall blood pressure

28

Name three target organs of adrenaline

- heart
- liver
- blood vessels
(Also the brain, eyes - pupil dilation)

29

Name some processes that require the transfer of energy when the body is fully at rest

Any life process that is continuous and essential for life, such as:
- breathing
- conducting impulses by neurones (eg. in the brain)
- heart beating
- glands making hormones
- organs responding to hormones