What is the placentation of Strepsirrhines?
What is placentation of Tarsiers?
What is the dentition of Strepsirrhines?
4, 2, 6, 6
What is the dentition of Tarsiers?
4, 2, 6, 6
What is the dentition of Platyrrhines?
Callitrichids: 4, 2, 6, 4
Marmosets have procumbent incisors same length as canines used to gnaw holes in trees and eat gums and exudates, a staple of their diet.
Cebids: 4, 2, 6, 6
What is the dentition of Catarrhines?
4, 2, 4, 6
Which digit is opposable in Callitrichids?
Hallux - first digit of each foot
Describe scent glands in Callitrichids.
Circumgenital glands - sebaceous glands that cover labia major and pudendum in female, and scrotum in male
Sternal glands - on anterior chest
Describe breeding in Callitrichids.
Usually only one female in an extended breeding group reproduces. Subordinate females (usually offspring of breding female) may or may not have estrous cycles
Describe twinning in Callitrichids.
Frequency ~80%. All twins and many singletons are chimeras. Result of placental vasscular anastomoses and continuous placental hematopoiesis resulting in stem cell crossover. Freemartinism does not occur because placenta contains aromatizing enzyme system converting androgens to estrone.
Which NHPs require vitamin D3 in the diet?
Platyrrhines: Cebids and Callitrichids.
Describe group composition in marmosets.
Can be multi male-multifemale, one male-multifemale, or one female-multimale. Usually common marmoset groups have only one breeding pair.
Describe group composition in tamarins.
multimale-multifemale, consisting of related and unrelated adults and offspring. All-male and solitary males have also been observed. Mating system usually polyandry. Polygyny and monogamy can also occur.
List Callitrichids listed in Appendix I of CITES.
Callithrix aurita, C. flaviceps
Sanguinus bicolor, S. geoffroyi, S. leucopus, S. oedipus
Puberty in Callitrichids?
Influenced by social setting. 15-17 months for female tamarins if living in family group. If removed at 9 months from family group and paired with unrelated male then puberty at 10-11 months. Male C. jacchus reach adult testosterone levels at 18 month, but likley able to impregnate prior to this.
Ovarian cycle of common marmoset?
Pregnancy detection in Callitrichids?
As early as 2 weeks with plasma or urine placental chorionic gonadotropin.
Are Callitrichids seasonal breeders?
In the wild, yes. In laboratory, no.
Weaning in Callitrichids?
Environmental temperatures for Callitrichids?
Cotton topped tamarins are metabolically stressed below 32o C (89o F). Cold stress is a possible stressor leading to chronic colitis in this species.
Describe nest boxes for Callitrichids.
Require flat surface for sleeping, preferably a nest box where a curled posture can be assumed to conserve body heat. Should have a viewing area at one end and a closable opening into the cage. Should be located as high as possible in the cage. Sanitized every other week.
Are standard New World primate diets acceptable for marmosets?
The dietary levels of iron found in these diets have been associated with hepatic hemosiderosis in marmosets.
Research models of common marmoset?
Allergic encephalomyelitis (models MS)
Research models for tamarins?
Cotton-topped tamarin, S. oedipus, models for chronic colitis and colon cancer. (CITES I)
S. labiatus, and S. mystax model viral hepatitis.