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Neuropsychology and Psychiatric Disorders > Schizophrenia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Schizophrenia Deck (17):

What is the two factor model of schizophrenia?

Factor 1:
- confabulations and delusions

Factor 2:
- failure in a common set of evaluation and monitoring processes, which allow these thoughts to be accepted and maintained rather than being rejected (no "tag" by unconscious system)


What are the 3 main symptoms of schizophrenia + definitions?

1) positive symptoms = excesses of thoughts, emotions, or behaviors
2) negative symptoms = deficits of thought, emotion and behavior
3) disorganized symptoms = disturbance in the production and organization of thoughts


What is the prevalence and age of appearance of schizophrenia?

lifetime prevalence = 1%
appearance in late adolescence or early adulthood


What is the 2 phases which occur in the course of schizophrenia?

1) prodromal phase = period of significant symptoms are apparent
2) active phase = symptoms are most pronounced
3) residual phase = primary symptoms have subsided, but other symptoms may still be present


What are the outcomes for patients with schizophrenia 10 years after initial diagnosis?

25% completely recoverd
25% improved, relatively independent
25% improved, but extensive support required
15% hospitalized, unimproved
10% deceased (mostly suicide)


What are the most common comorbid disorders with schizophrenia?

50% substance abuse
up to 15% commit suicide


What is the etiology of schizophrenia?

- genetics
- neurotransmitters (abnormalities in DA, also serotonin, GABA, glutamate and others)
- brain imaging: enlarged ventricles


What are the 2 forms of pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia + their mechanisms?

1) traditional antipsychotic drugs
- primarily blocking D2 receptors
- reduction of positive and disorganized symptoms
- little or no effect on negative symptoms

2) atypical antipsychotic drugs
- not primarily blocking D2 receptors
- broader spectrum of receptor activity with higher affinities to other receptors (e.g. serotonin, GABA)
- reduction of positive and disorganized symptoms
- mabe better in reducing negative symptoms


Name the psychological treatments of schizophrenia (4)

- psychoanalytic therapies
- family therapy and reducing expressed emotion
- social-skills training


What are the strongest neuropsychological predictors of clinical outcome in schizophrenia? (5)

- working memory
- executive functioning
- verbal learning
- memory
- processing speed


Do cognitive impairments precede schizophrenia?

Yes: cognitive deficits are markers of schizophrenia vulnerability


Describe the ethical dilemma of using animal models of schizophrenia

One the one hand: animal rights
On the other:
- experiments can be performed that cannot be performed in humans
- these experiments may be crucial for the development of new treatment approaches


How are the positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia measured in animal models?

- positive: hyperactivity, hyperlocomotion and stereotypic behavior
- negative: social withdrawal
- cognitive: tested by maze tasks


What are delusions?

- that are not objectively true
- that would not be accepted as true within the persone's culture
- that the person holds firmly in spite of contradictory evidence


What are the most common delusions?`

60-70%: delusions of reference or persecution
+/- 30%: religious or grandiosity delusions


What is theory of mind?

The ability to infer the mental states (beliefs, thoughts, and intensions) of others in order to predict their behavior


What did Firth (1992) hypothesize regarding ToM in schizophrenia?

Firth proposed that ToM deficits underpin the origin of delusions. He hypothesized that ToM skills in people with delusions develop normally but are "lost" during an acute psychotic episode