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Flashcards in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Treatment Deck (37)
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Schizophrenia Treatment Goals

Decrease symptoms

Increase quality of life (minimize adverse effects from treatment, including weight gain, constipation, dyspepsia, diabetes, cardiac and EPS)

Encourage adherence

Decrease hospitalizations/health care costs (Schizophrenics utilize police and ED more than most)


Schizophrenia Treatment guidelines (General)

First Gens (Typicals):
>reduce positive symptoms equally at equivalent doses
>do not reduce negative symptoms well
>increased EPS, anticholinergic, sedation and hypotension
>less risk for meatbolic syndrome

Second Gens (Atypicals):
>reduce positive symptoms well
>moderate efficacy for negative symptoms
>possible effect on increasing cognition (Lurasidone at 5HT7 receptor)
>less EPS (5HT2 antagonism in nigrostriatal DA pathway)
>high risk for metabolic syndrome


Describe Metabolic Syndrome

Increased weight gain, increased BP, increased cholesterol, increased diabetes/insulin resistance


FGA Dosing Considerations

Potency thought to be related to D2 occupancy/affinity | Higher D2 affinity associated with stronger potency (generally 60% affinity to be effective, AEs seen at >80% affinity)

Dosed on 'Chlorpromazine' (CPZ) equivalents | Treatment responsive, multi-episode schizophrenia dosing should be in range of 300-1000 mg CPZ equivalents


Increased risk of EPS leads to decreased risk of ______________



SGA Dosing Considerations

Consider and dose to side effects: Initial dosing should be low, titrate slowly to side effects

Maintenance dosing: Watch for long term side effects (metabolic syndrome, QT prolongation, Prolactin release, EPS)


Schizophrenia Algorithm

1. 2nd Generation First
2. Switch to a different 2nd Gen or to a 1st Gen
3. Clozapine (only after 2 failed trials with other antipsychotics)


Schizophrenia Treatment Guidelines (TMAP)

First episode: SGA (risperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole)

Acute severe psychosis (acute positive symptoms): Haldol (first gen with high potency, good for acute positive symptoms); Olanzapine (SGA with strong M and H1 receptor action, sedating)

Maintenance (usually life-long):
>Younger (SGA preferred, less sedating, less EPS)
>Middle age (SGA or FGA, more weight gain, diabetes risk)
>Treatment resistance (FGA or clozapine)
>Pregnant (Clozapine or Lurasidone, both Category B)

Special Considerations:
>Ziprasidone and Lurasidone must be taken with 350-500 cals of food
>the most common EPS with SGA is akathisia
>If cardiac concerns, avoid ziprasidone
>Risperidone doses over 6mg have heightened EPS risk


Schizophrenia Treatment Resistance Guidelines

After failed first drug, try a different SGA or FGA

After 2 failed trials, switch to Clozapine or an alternative SGA/FGA

Clozapine needs:
>weekly lab draws (WBC/ANC) and coordination between pharmacy and physician for dosing and lab draws
>REMS Clozapine Registry
>RPh do not dispense until next lab draw


Neutropenia and Luekopenia

Clozapine has high neutropenia/agranulocytosis risk

All FGA and SGA have risk of neutropenia (usually seen 4 weeks to 4 months of use; Haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone)

Neutropenia defined as neutrophil cound below 1500/uL in whites and under 1200 for African/Middle Eastern

Leukopenia defined as white blood cell count under 4000/uL


Antipsychotic Adequate Trial

To classify as a non-responder you need to use an antipsychotic for at least 4-6 weeks (may need up to 12 weeks for Clozapine)

Assessing full 5effects of antipsychotics may take up to 12 weeks for all (up to 6 months for clozapine) --> meds can be switched sooner if there is acute relapse resulting in danger to themselves or to others


Antipsychotics risk of weight gain

Highest Risk: (SGA) olanzapine = clozapine)

Medium-High Risk: Low potency FGA

Medium Risk: Risperidone = Paliperidone = quetiapine

Medium-Low Risk: Medium potency FGA

Low Risk: High potency FGA = Aripiprazole = Ziprasidone


Diabetes/Insulin Resistance in antipsychotics

High Risk: (SGA) Colzapine, Olanzapine

Moderate RIsk: (SGA) Quetiapine, Risperidone

Lower Risk: Ziprasidone, Aripiprazole, FGAs

Should check HbA1c and blood glucose quartlerly when on SGAs


Prolactin Elevation Risk

Highest Risk: Risperidone = paliperidone = Haldol

High Risk: FGA

Medium-High Risk: Olanzapine

Medium Risk: Ziprasidone

Medium-Low Risk: Quetiapine = Clozapine

Low Risk: Aripiprazole


QT Prolongation Relative Risk

Highest Risk: Thioridazine, pimozide

High Risk: Ziprasidone > Paliperidone

Medium High Risk: Quetiapine = Risperidone = Olanzapine = Haloperidol

Medium Risk: Clozapine

Medium-Low Risk: Aripiprazole = Fluphenazine = Chlorpromazine


Clozapine Metabolism

Clozapine uses CYP1A2, 3A4 and 2D6 pathways for its metabolism

Cigarette smoking is a strong CYP1A2 inducer

75% of schizophrenic patients smoke

Caffeine also induces 1A2

*also a problem in olanzapine


Long-Acting AP injectables

Improve adherence to medication

Given in deltoid or glutes | Some pharmacists will administer

Very expensive | Some drug companies help pay or have assistance programs

If AEs present, there is no way to retrieve out of body

Always start with oral form first, then move to injectable


Medical Conditions which may precipitate mania

Stroke, Traumatic brain injury, Epilepsy, HIV/AIDS, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (may not have bipolar disorder), Vitamin B12 deficiency, Cushing's disease, Sleep deprivation, Light exposure, Extreme Stress, Wilson's Disease


Drugs which may precipitate mania

Alcohol, bronchodilators, caffeine, cocaine, stimulants, steroids, tricyclic antidepressants, hallucinogens, dopamine agonists, pseudoephedrine, interferon


Bipolar DIsease (classification)

Bipolar 1 (classic bipolar disorder; both manic and depressive episodes of varying length)

Bipolar 2 (less severe manic episodes with similar bipolar episodes to Bipolar 1)

Cyclothymia (chronic but milder form of bipolar disorder; hypomania and depression that may last for years)

Mixed episodes (mania and depression occur simultaneously; individuals feel hopeless and depressed yet energetic and motivated to engage in risky behaviors)

Rapid cycling (four or more episodes of mania, depression or both within 1 year)


Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis

Destructive times for patients are either in Mania or Depressive phases of illness

Manic: at least 7 days when person has abnormally or persistently elevated or irritable mood; may alternate back and forth between elevated and irritable


Symptoms of manic episodes (DSM 5))

Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity (ranges from uncritical self-confidence to a delusional sense of expertise)

Decreased need for sleep

Intensified speech

Rapid jumping around of ideas or feels like thoughts are racing


Increase in goal-directed activity or psychomotor agitation (pacing, inability to sit still, pulling at skin or clothing)

Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high risk consequence


Hypomanic Symptoms (DSM 5)

Hypomanic episode is very similar to a manic one, but less intense

Only required to persist for 4 days and it should be observed by others that the person is noticeable different from his/her regular, non-depressed mood and that the change has an impact on his or her functioning


Bipolar Disorder 1 Treatment

Step 1: Lithium, VPA, or SGA (aripiprazole, quetiapine, olanzapine, paliperidone, risperidone, ziprasidone); Lithium OR VPA + SGA

Step 2: Switch agent with alternative (SGA, Li, or VPA); combine agents (Lithium, VPA or SGA - never 2 SGAs or clozapine)

Step 3: Combination (see above), CBZ, FGA or OXC

Step 4: ECT, adjunct with clozapine, Lithium + (VPA, CBZ or OXC) + SGA


Best Treatment Evidence for Mania

For euphoric hypomania/mania or psychotic mania (Lithium, valproate, aripiprazole, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone)

For dysphoric or mixed episodes (Divalproex, risperidone, aripiprazole, or ziprasidone)

Secondary options (CBZ - many drug interactions; Olanzapine - metabolic syndrome risk)

Combinations (lithium + VPA, Lithium + AAP (risperidone, quetiapine, olanzapine) ) OR (CBZ or oxcarbazepine + typical AP like haldol or perphenazine)


Don't use ______________ by itself if patient has history of mania



Best evidence for Bipolar 2 or severe BPD1 with depression

If on lithium, add lamotrigine or quetiapine, then olanzapine with fluoxetine

If not on lithium, add Lamotrigine or QTP plus an antimanic (lithium, VPA or CPZ)
*make sure to watch out for VPA and Lamotrigine drug interactions

If not on Lithium and has not had a recent or severe manic episode, may try Lamotrigine by itself

May add on olanzapine or olanzapine with flu`oxetine


Antidepressants in bipolar disorder

Controversial | Not recommended as monotherapy due to mania switch | Not recommended in BPD 1 but may be appropriate in BPD 2 with mood stabilizer on board (lithium or lamotrigine) but evidence of improved stability is lacking

Suggested antidepressants are SSRI, SNRI (venlafaxine), MAOI (phenelzine)
*Avoid TCAs due to overdose potential


Later stages of Bipolar treatment or resistance

Oxcarbazepine (watch for hyponatremia)

Clozapine (treatment resistant cases only - for severe mania/mixed)

ECT (treatment resistant cases only - highly effective for acute mania)

Inhaled Loxapine (indicated to treat acute agitation in Bipolar 1)



Indicated for acute mania and maintenance treatment in BPD 1 and 2

Serum levels 0.5-1.0 mEq/L

Prophylactic benefits are better for episodes or mania than for depression recurrence

Long term lithium treatment leads to a 5 fold decrease in suicide risk compared with placebo and other treatment
Has neuroprotection (direct-illness modifying effect)