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Flashcards in Sclera and Episclera Deck (71):
1

Describe the anatomy to the episcelra

The very outer layer of the sclera
Dense, vascular CT.
Provides nutrition to sclera
Mscular fusion (syonival membrane) IE connected to Tenon's capsule

2

Describe the vasculature of the episclera

Superficial episcleral plexus and deep episcleral plexus

3

What is episcleritis?

Benign, transient, sudden onset inflammation of episclera

4

What layers of episclera are involved?

Conjunctival vessels, deep and superficial scleral plexus (Tenon's vessels)

5

What are symptoms of episcleritis?

Acute onset of redness
Mild pain but generally NOT painful
Can be recurrent
No discharge

6

What are signs of episcleritis?

Sectorial (less commonly diffuse) redness of one or both eyes
Mild tenderness over area of episcleral injection
Nodule that is somewhat mobile
Anterior uveitis/corneal involvement is rare
VA normal.

7

What sort of history should you check for in episcleritis?

30% associated systemic disease, CT disease, atopy, rosacea, gout, herpes, syphillis, rheumatoid arthritis
Tend to be women more than men
History of rash, arthritis, venereal disease, recent viral ilness or medical problems

8

What are some lab tests to do to check for Episcleritis?

ANA, rhemuatoid factor, ESR, serum uric acid level, RPR, FTA-ABS

9

What's the Dx for Scleritis?

A deep pain that's severe and radiates to ipsilateral face

10

What's the Dx for Iritis?

Cells and flare in the anterior chamber

11

What's the Dx for Conjunctivitis?

Discharge and inferior tarsal conjunctival follicles/papillae

12

Describe some noninfectious etiologies of episcleritis

Idiopathic
CT disease (RA, polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erthematosus, Wegener granulomatosis)
Gout (Increased serum uric acid)
Inflammatory bowel disease
Rosacea/Atopy
Thyroid disease

13

Describe some infectious etiologies of episceleritis

Herpes zoster ivrus
Herpes simplex virus
Lyme disease
Suphilis (FTA-ABS +)
Hepatitis B

14

Describe some of the work up for episcleritis

External evaluation - Look for a bluish hue of scleritis
SLE (Lupus) - Conj/sclera, cornea, AC, check IOP. Anesthetisze and move conj to determine depth of injection)
Lab tests if history suggests it (ANA - antinuclear antibody, Rheumatoid factor, ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), Serum uric acid level, FTA-ABS (Syphilis))

15

What effect does 2.5% phenylephrine have on episcleritis?

Blanches the episcleral vessels (makes them clear/white) after 15 minutes and clears up some redness

16

Name the classifications of episcleritis

Simple - Sectorial/Diffuse
Nodular

17

Of the classifications, which is the most common kind of episcleritis?

Simple (78-83%)

18

Describe Simple Episcleritis

Generalized, moderate episcleral swelling and injection
See greyish infiltrates and will resolve in first 3 weeks half the time

19

Describe Nodular episcleritis

See a nodule of localized edema within area of injection (Red bump in the red patch)
Single or multiple nodules
MOVABLE nodule over deep episcleral plexus
Takes longer to resolve than simple episcleritis

20

How do you treat episcleritis?

SELF LIMITING, No treatment required. Treatment is for patient peace of mind
Mild - Chilled artificial tears, decongestants and cold compresses topically
Moderate - Mild topical steroid (Loteprednol or flurometholone) with tapering
Oral NSAID/ASA ok too

21

Describe how a follow up for episcleritis would go

If on steroids, check weekly and do IOP
If on artificial tears/vasoconstrictors, check in 2-3 weeks

22

Describe Chronic/Stubborn Episcleritis

Rare, nodule formation,scleral thinning possible (not necrosis), trasparency and 'bluish' color

23

How do you treat chronic episcleritis?

NSAIDs, oral steroids (better option)

24

Can a chronic episcleritis become scleritis?

No

25

Describe the anatomy of the sclera

Collage and elastic bundles, a firm and flexible protective layer.
Rich nerve sypply via long ciliary nerves
AVASCULAR
Low metabolism supplied by choroid and episclera
Fully hydrated
Continuous with corneal stroma

26

Highlighting anatomy - What supplies the metabolic needs of sclera?

Choroid and episclera

27

Is the sclera vascular?

No

28

What is the sclera continuous with?

Corneal stroma

29

What is scleritis?

Uncommon CHRONIC granulomatous inflammatory disease of sclera, both anterior or posterior.
Inflammation affects deep episcleral plexus, (choroidal vasculature) gives it a dark red with blue tint
Can blind patients and half tend to be associated with underlying disease, CT disease or trauma/infection

30

Describe anterior scleritis

Non-nectorizing (85%). VA ok unless uveitis occurs. Patient presents with redness of eye and SEVERE eye pain

31

Describe posterior scleritis

Scleritis without pain or redness. Can have EOM restriction, proptosis and permenant decreased VA.
May see an amelanotic choroidal mass (no color)
Usually unrelated to systemic disease

32

What age and population tend to be most affected by scleritis?

40-60 years and females>males 8 to 5

33

What kind of complications can arise from scleritis affecting the choroidal vasculature?

Intraocular complications - uveitis, retinitis/retinal detachment, glaucoma, CAT, cornea (peripheral keratitis, limbal guttering)

34

Describe some symptoms for scleritis

SEVERE OCULAR PAIN (Deep boring radiating pain that can wake from sleep, goes from temple, brow, jaw or sinus)
Gradual onset red eye with decreasing VA
Recurrent episodes
Scleromalacia perforans (holes in sclera) but may have minimal symptoms

35

Describe some signs of scleritis

Inflammed sclera, episcleral or conjunctival vessels
Injection of vessels, giving sclera/conj a red look
Sclera has bluish hue (Best seen in natural light) - Sclera may be thing or edematous
Photophobia or tearing of sclera

36

What is the Dx for episcleritis

Sclera not involved, blood vessels blanch with topical phenylephrine
More acute onset than scleritis
Patient will be younger generally speaking
Mild to no symptoms

37

What are some systemic causes for scleritis?

50% of cases associated with systemic diseases:
Collagen diseases
Metabolic diseases
Granulomatous disease
Infectious diseases
Ocular diseases

38

What are and describe the two kinds of anterior scleritis

Diffuse - Widespread inflammation of anterior sclera that is most common kind and most benign (no progression)
Nodular - 1+ erythematous (red patch) with immovable, tender inflamed nodules on anterior sclera. 20% become necrotizing and takes up to 8 weeks to clear

39

How do you treat diffuse/nodular anterior scleritis?

Oral NSAIDs
Oral prednisone with slow tapering
Immunosuppressive therapy --> systemic steroids used with NSAIDs

40

When selecting oral NSAIDs to treat anterior scleritis, how would you know the treatment was not working?

Prescribing three different NSAIDs and all must fail before calling treatment failed

41

Describe anterior necrotizing scleritis

Most severe form of scleritis and has vision threatening complications (permanent)
Severe pain, damage to sclera is significant and becomes transparent
See a necrotic/avascular patch and can have conjunctival perforation

42

What class of systemic conditions can cause anterior necrotizing scleritis with inflammation? (Give example)

Systemic collagen vascular disorders like Rheumatoid arthritis

43

Describe the ophthalmic emergency that can occur with scleritis

Anterior necrotizing scleritis with inflammation
Sclera thins and is blue
Gradual extreme painful red eye
Can have associated corneal inflammation

44

What is corneal inflammation caused by scleritis called?

Sclerokeratitis

45

What are some secondary complications with anterior necrotizing scleritis with inflammation?

Sclerosing keratitis
Cataract
Hyphema
Retina involvement (Staphyloma, ectasia)
Secondary glaucoma

46

What is Ectasia?

Bulging of sclera without a uveal lining

47

What is Staphyloma?

Localized thinning of sclera with bulging of uvea into thinned/stretched area of sclera
Are named on location
Scleritis, myopia, RD, or CT disease can be involved
Check with a BIO exam and A/B scan

48

What is another name for scleromalacia perforans?

Anterior necrotizing scleritis WITHOUT inflammation

49

Describe scleromalacia perforans

Frequently in patients with long standing RA --> Formation of a rheumatoid nodule in sclera
NO PAIN
Visible avascular patch
Thinning scleral tissue that necrotizes
Steady progression
Perforation rate is high unless the IOP is high

50

How do you treat necrotizing scleritis?

Oral Prednisone
Immunosuppressive agents (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, azathiprine, cyclosporin)
Abundant lubrication for scleromalacia perforans
Severe cases require scleral patch graft surgery to repair damaged corneal tissue

51

What is the Dx for posterior scleritis?

Retrobulbar optic neuritis
Retinal detachment
Tumor
Orbital disease

52

What are some signs of posterior scleritis?

Optic disc swelling
Macular edema
Retinal hemorrhage
Retinal detachment
Vitritis
Choroidal folds/detachment
Intraretinal white deposits

53

How do you treat a posterior scleritis?

Controversial, not a lot of consensus
ASA
NSAIDs
Steroids
Immunosuppressive treatment

54

In general, what is the treatment mentality when treating scleritis: Infectious etiologies

Use of topical/systemic antibodies

55

In general, what is the treatment mentality when treating scleritis: Foreign body

Remove it

56

In general, what is the treatment mentality when treating scleritis: What else to consider?

Glasses/eye shielding at all times if there is significant thinning/risk of perforation
Topical steroids are NOT effective

57

What is contraindicated in treated scleritis?

Subconjunctival steroids, especially in necrotizing scleritis --> increased scleral thinning/perforation

58

Describe the work up for scleritis

History - previous episodes? Systemic diseases?
Examine sclera in all directions via gross inspection in natural/adequate room light
Slit lamp exam with red-free filter to check if there are avascular zones
DFE to rule out posterior involvement
COMPLETE physical exam (CBC, ESR, uric acid, syphilis, rheumatoid factor, ANA, FBS (fasting blood sugar), PPD, radiograph of sacroiliac joints)

59

How would you differentiate episcleritis and scleritis?

Conjunctival manipulation (vessels move with episcleritis)
OTC decongestants (should clear up with episcleritis)
10% phenylephrine (blanching vessels with episcleritis not deep scleral vessels)

60

What are the congenital anomalies?

Pigment cuffs
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Melanosis Oculi
Nevus of Ota
Tumors of the sclera
Senile hyaline plaque

61

What's a pigment cuff?

Common anatomical varient
Involves short anterior ciliary nerves
Bluish cuff

62

Describe "Blue Sclera"

Tissue coloration due to scleral thinning, exposing uvea beneath
Normal in infants and asymptomatic

63

List some causes for Blue Sclera

Osteogenesis imperfecta
Marfan's syndrome
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Pseudohyperparathyroidism
Van der Hoeve syndrome
Keratoconus and keratoglobus
Buphthalmos
High myopia
Corticossteroid overuse
Melanosis
Nevus of Ota

64

What is Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

Inherited permenant blue sclera
Involves ekelton, ear, joints, teeth, skin and eyes
Four clinical presentations with variable inheritance and deafness

65

What are the three mai nsigns of Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

Blue sclera
Deafness
Bone fractures

66

What is Melanosis oculi?

Congenital bilateral hyperpigmentation of conjunctiva, episclera, sclera, uvea and choroid

67

What is the Nevus of Ota?

"Oculodermal melanocytosis"
Pigmentation of periorbital skin
Can be on lid, lid margin or entire face
Distribution of pigment along opthalmic and maxillary divisions of CN V
Congenital and unilateral
Malignant degeneration

68

What is a Senile Hyaline Plaque?

Localized non-inflammatory thinning
Tends to be anterior to insertion of MR and LR muscles
Seen in older population, common, asymptomatic and benign
Can be multiple and diffuse
To treat, reassure patient and monitor

69

What is Icterus/Jaundice?

Yellowing of sclera or skin due to high concentration of bilirubin in blood
Need medical exam

70

Describe scleral perforation

High veolocity projectiles striking the sclera
Varying degrees of pain
Sight may not be detectable
Associated wit hconjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, intraocular heme, lowered IOP or hemosiderosis (rusting in the eye)

71

How do you treat and examine for scleral perforations?

Perform gonio, DFE, B-scan, CT scan, DO NOT USE MRI
Treat with immediate hospitalization and Fox shield to protect eyes