Flashcards in Old Material Deck (49):
What is Posterior Embryotoxon
Thickened anteriorly displaced Schwalbe's Line
What to do with Posterior Embryotoxon
What is Axenfeld-Reiger's Syndrome
Bilateral posterior embryotoxon with iris attachments to the displaced Schwalbe's line. Dental and craniofacial abnormalities present
What to do with Axenfeld-Reiger's Syndrome
Check IOPs, screen for glaucoma
What is Peter's Anomaly
Posterior embryotoxon with iris attachments to the line as well as anterior and central synechia. Poor prognosis
What is Marginal Furrow Degeneration
Rare idiopathic thinning between arcus and limbus; in the elderly; nonprogressive and noninflammatory
Terrien's Marginal Degeneration
Thinning that starts superior and moves inferior with opacification and vascularization, ultimately causing curvature changes with a steepening in a sinosidual pattern
Pellucid Marginal Degeneration
Rare bilateral noninflammatory PERIPHERAL corneal thinning inferior and between 4 and 8 o clock.
Pellucid Marginal Degeneration presents like:
Anterior Keratoconus has degeneration that is:
How is the corneal graft (PKP) different in anterior keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration?
Central corneal graft for keratoconus; larger graft to replace central and peripheral cornea in pellucid marginal degeneration
What is Mooren's Ulcer
Rare autoimmune inflammatory process affecting all corneal layers, ultimately destroying half to 3/4 of the cornea; painful and can lead to blindness
How to treat Mooren's Ulcer?
Use pred forte, cycloplegics and a bandage CL to try and promote healing and reduce inflammation
What corneal layer is affected in Meesman's dystrophy?
Messman's dystrophy is?
Formation of microcysts on corneal epithelium that can rupture causing discomfort and possibly VA loss
Epithelial Basement Membrane Disorder is?
Disorder of basal lamina. Abnormal turnover and maturation of the basal lamina; may cause discomfort and VA loss
What is granular dystrophy?
Corneal stroma; Well defined grayish opacities in stroma that can eventually extend deeper in the cornea causing VA loss
What is lattice dystrophy?
Subepithelial opacities that grow and group together, eventually reducing VA and requiring PKP
What is macular dystrophy?
Rapid opacification of the cornea with severe VA loss by the 20s and 30s
Which requires immediate hospitalization: Orbital cellulitis or preseptal cellulitis?
How do both orbital cellulitis and preseptal cellulitis present similiarly?
Flu like symptoms, fever, lid edema, redness, maybe some VA loss
How does orbital cellulitis present differently than preseptal cellulitis?
Fever is much higher, restricted and painful EOM movement, VA loss much more pronounced
How does preseptal cellulitis differ from orbital cellulitis?
Generally secondary to an existing infection
What is cavernous sinus thrombosis?
Cavernous sinus filling with blood; bilateral even if it starts unilateral it will spread; can have bluish area behind the ears, but looks like bilateral orbital cellulitis with some CN involvement
What is orbital pseudotumor?
Idiopathic inflammation that must be diagnosed by exclusion; abrupt and painful with swelling, lower VA, choroidal folds seen on BIO
Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism?
Fatigue, tachycardia with heart palpitations, tremor, fine tremors, heat intolerance, weight loss, diarrhea, muscle weakness
Graves' Ophthalmopathy and what does NOSPECS stand for?
N - No physical signs or symptoms
O - Only signs related to the lids
S - Soft tissue involvement
P - Proptosis
E - EOM involvement
C - Corneal involvement
S - Sight loss
Graves' signs related to the lids: Dalrymple's SIgn
Widened fissure, upperlid is retracted in primary gaze
Graves' signs related to the lids: Vongraefe's Sign
Lower lid lag on inferior gaze
Graves' signs related to the lids: Kocher's Sign
Graves' signs related to the lids: Mobius Sign
Pain/EOM weakness when converging
Graves' signs related to the lids: Means Sign
IR affected, globe lags on upward gaze
Graves' signs related to the lids: Stellwig's Sign
Graves' signs related to the lids: Griffith's SIgn
Lag of lower lid on upward gaze
Graves' signs related to the lids: Boston's Sign
Jerky lid lag
Graves' signs related to the lids: Gifford's Sign
Can't evert upper lid
Graves' signs related to the lids: Enroth's Sign
What is a dermoid cyst?
Mostly benign; mature outgrowth of skin with all associated parts. Can be deep or superficial
How does a deep dermoid cyst present?
Tends to be older onset, globe is displaced, can have inflammation/scarring
How does a superficial dermoid cyst present?
Smooth mass that can be superior temporal/nasal to the orbit and has no proptosis
What is a capillary hemangioma?
Most common benign endothelial tumor (blood vessel endothelium); may see a bluish nevus (strawberry mark) with more proptosis on crying
What are the two phases of a capillary hemangioma?
Proliferative and involutional
What is a cavernous hemangioma?
Most common benign tumor in adults; located behind eye muscle cone, causing slow unilateral proptosis. Can eventually cause optic nerve dysfunction
What is rhabdomyosarcoma?
Most common malignant tumor in kids; RAPID onset and progression, progressive proptosis that presents with lid edema, a palpable mass with a history of nosebleeds. Treat immediately with radiation/chemo
Elongated anterior to posterior
A long narrow head resembling an inverted boat
Premature fusion of sagittal suture
Premature fusion of metopic suture or frontal suture, joining the two halves of the frontal bone
High retreating forehead that is V-shaped
Coronal suture fusing prematurely
Shortened front-to-back diameter of skull; head disproportionately wide
Tower skull or high-head syndrome
Premature closure of coronal and lambdoidal suture