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Flashcards in Old Material Deck (49):
1

What is Posterior Embryotoxon

Thickened anteriorly displaced Schwalbe's Line

2

What to do with Posterior Embryotoxon

Check IOPs

3

What is Axenfeld-Reiger's Syndrome

Bilateral posterior embryotoxon with iris attachments to the displaced Schwalbe's line. Dental and craniofacial abnormalities present

4

What to do with Axenfeld-Reiger's Syndrome

Check IOPs, screen for glaucoma

5

What is Peter's Anomaly

Posterior embryotoxon with iris attachments to the line as well as anterior and central synechia. Poor prognosis

6

What is Marginal Furrow Degeneration

Rare idiopathic thinning between arcus and limbus; in the elderly; nonprogressive and noninflammatory

7

Terrien's Marginal Degeneration

Thinning that starts superior and moves inferior with opacification and vascularization, ultimately causing curvature changes with a steepening in a sinosidual pattern

8

Pellucid Marginal Degeneration

Rare bilateral noninflammatory PERIPHERAL corneal thinning inferior and between 4 and 8 o clock.

9

Pellucid Marginal Degeneration presents like:

Anterior keratoconus

10

Anterior Keratoconus has degeneration that is:

Central Cornea

11

How is the corneal graft (PKP) different in anterior keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration?

Central corneal graft for keratoconus; larger graft to replace central and peripheral cornea in pellucid marginal degeneration

12

What is Mooren's Ulcer

Rare autoimmune inflammatory process affecting all corneal layers, ultimately destroying half to 3/4 of the cornea; painful and can lead to blindness

13

How to treat Mooren's Ulcer?

Use pred forte, cycloplegics and a bandage CL to try and promote healing and reduce inflammation

14

What corneal layer is affected in Meesman's dystrophy?

Corneal epithelium

15

Messman's dystrophy is?

Formation of microcysts on corneal epithelium that can rupture causing discomfort and possibly VA loss

16

Epithelial Basement Membrane Disorder is?

Disorder of basal lamina. Abnormal turnover and maturation of the basal lamina; may cause discomfort and VA loss

17

What is granular dystrophy?

Corneal stroma; Well defined grayish opacities in stroma that can eventually extend deeper in the cornea causing VA loss

18

What is lattice dystrophy?

Subepithelial opacities that grow and group together, eventually reducing VA and requiring PKP

19

What is macular dystrophy?

Rapid opacification of the cornea with severe VA loss by the 20s and 30s

20

Which requires immediate hospitalization: Orbital cellulitis or preseptal cellulitis?

Orbital Cellulitis

21

How do both orbital cellulitis and preseptal cellulitis present similiarly?

Flu like symptoms, fever, lid edema, redness, maybe some VA loss

22

How does orbital cellulitis present differently than preseptal cellulitis?

Fever is much higher, restricted and painful EOM movement, VA loss much more pronounced

23

How does preseptal cellulitis differ from orbital cellulitis?

Generally secondary to an existing infection

24

What is cavernous sinus thrombosis?

Cavernous sinus filling with blood; bilateral even if it starts unilateral it will spread; can have bluish area behind the ears, but looks like bilateral orbital cellulitis with some CN involvement

25

What is orbital pseudotumor?

Idiopathic inflammation that must be diagnosed by exclusion; abrupt and painful with swelling, lower VA, choroidal folds seen on BIO

26

Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism?

Fatigue, tachycardia with heart palpitations, tremor, fine tremors, heat intolerance, weight loss, diarrhea, muscle weakness

27

Graves' Ophthalmopathy and what does NOSPECS stand for?

N - No physical signs or symptoms
O - Only signs related to the lids
S - Soft tissue involvement
P - Proptosis
E - EOM involvement
C - Corneal involvement
S - Sight loss

28

Graves' signs related to the lids: Dalrymple's SIgn

Widened fissure, upperlid is retracted in primary gaze

29

Graves' signs related to the lids: Vongraefe's Sign

Lower lid lag on inferior gaze

30

Graves' signs related to the lids: Kocher's Sign

Frightened stare

31

Graves' signs related to the lids: Mobius Sign

Pain/EOM weakness when converging

32

Graves' signs related to the lids: Means Sign

IR affected, globe lags on upward gaze

33

Graves' signs related to the lids: Stellwig's Sign

Infrequent blinking

34

Graves' signs related to the lids: Griffith's SIgn

Lag of lower lid on upward gaze

35

Graves' signs related to the lids: Boston's Sign

Jerky lid lag

36

Graves' signs related to the lids: Gifford's Sign

Can't evert upper lid

37

Graves' signs related to the lids: Enroth's Sign

Puffy lids

38

What is a dermoid cyst?

Mostly benign; mature outgrowth of skin with all associated parts. Can be deep or superficial

39

How does a deep dermoid cyst present?

Tends to be older onset, globe is displaced, can have inflammation/scarring

40

How does a superficial dermoid cyst present?

Smooth mass that can be superior temporal/nasal to the orbit and has no proptosis

41

What is a capillary hemangioma?

Most common benign endothelial tumor (blood vessel endothelium); may see a bluish nevus (strawberry mark) with more proptosis on crying

42

What are the two phases of a capillary hemangioma?

Proliferative and involutional

43

What is a cavernous hemangioma?

Most common benign tumor in adults; located behind eye muscle cone, causing slow unilateral proptosis. Can eventually cause optic nerve dysfunction

44

What is rhabdomyosarcoma?

Most common malignant tumor in kids; RAPID onset and progression, progressive proptosis that presents with lid edema, a palpable mass with a history of nosebleeds. Treat immediately with radiation/chemo

45

Describe Scaphelocephaly

Elongated anterior to posterior
A long narrow head resembling an inverted boat
Premature fusion of sagittal suture

46

Describe Trigonocephaly

Premature fusion of metopic suture or frontal suture, joining the two halves of the frontal bone
High retreating forehead that is V-shaped

47

Describe Brachycephaly

Flat-head syndrome
Coronal suture fusing prematurely
Shortened front-to-back diameter of skull; head disproportionately wide

48

Describe Oxycephaly

Tower skull or high-head syndrome
Premature closure of coronal and lambdoidal suture

49

Describe Plagiocephaly

Flattening of back/side of the head causing an oblique slant