Flashcards in Scots on The Western Front Deck (12)
Explain 6 reasons why Scots volunteered to go to war in 1914
Adventure - a lot of young men had never left their own country so they saw war as an opportunity to travel and see new things.
Economic - most men at the time weren’t earning a lot so 7 shillings a week was a step up
Peer pressure - men that didn’t go to war were frowned upon for being cowards and would be a disgrace to their family
Pals battalion - people joined up with their friends in big groups as war is less intimidating if your around people you know (McRaes battalion)
Propaganda - war posters were up everywhere persuading young men to join by guilting them saying things like “who’s absent... is it you?”
Patriotism - in that time people were very loyal and really loved their countries and felt they should do anything for them
Describe the contribution Scots made at the battle of Arras. Mention 5 detailed points.
-largest amount of Scots that fought together in a battle
-44 Scottish battalions took part
-1/3 of the 150,000 casualties were Scottish which is massive considering how small Scotland is
-38 Scottish battalions crossed the German parapets on day one.
-the 15th division capturing the German village of Guémappe.
Describe the contribution Scots made to the battle of loos. Mention 5 detailed points.
-Piper Daniel laidlaw who walked up and down the parapets playing his pipes
-5 Scots won a Victoria cross
-7000 of the overall 21000 deaths were Scottish
-8/12 battalions that lost over 500 men were Scottish
-7 Scottish battalions lost their commanding officer
Explain how the tank was used to “break the stalemate”. Give two examples of problems with the tank.
-they were very useful in breaking the barbed wire as they were so large they could just drive over it
-however they weren’t useful as they were undeveloped when first used therefore having a lot of flaws resulting in them breaking down a lot
-They also had a top speed of 3mph & were massive which made it easy for the enemy to come up with a plan before it reached them
Describe the contribution Scots made at the Battle of the Somme. Mention five detailed points
-McCrae’s battalion (hearts f.c) suffered 75% casualties
-16th battalion suffered more than 500 casualties
-Douglas haig was a key Scot in this battle who unfortunately contributed to many deaths
-400,000 British soldiers died on the Somme and many were Scottish
-19000 Scots died on day 1
Explain why flame throwers were used as an effective weapon
-they were very terrifying for the enemy psychologically
-the smoke from the flame could also be used as a shield whilst the soldiers advanced across no mans land
-they could very easily flush soldiers out of trenches and into the open
Give an advantage and a disadvantage of using planes.
Give an advantage and a disadvantage of using machine guns.
-they can be used to spy on the enemy trenches
-pilots had a short flying life expectancy of 69 hours total as it wasn’t healthy for them to be in the air for so long with that kind of technology
-they can fire 600 rounds a minute
-they need to be on flat ground and get over heated easily
List 6 different tactics that soldiers used to fight in the trenches
-Machine guns -tunnelling
-over the top -tanks
-creeping barrage -reconnisance
Describe the conditions inside the trenches on the Western front. Mention six detailed points.
-no privacy to do the toilet or get changed
-rats would hang about the trenches and eat dead bodies
-lice were also another annoying issue and would end up all over soldiers bodies and they would sit and pick them out leaving big welts on the skin
-soldiers were sometimes waist deep in water when the trenches flooded
-the trenches of course smelt horrible as there was no toilets or showers and lets not forget the dead corpses everywhere
-lots of men suffered from trench foot which was the flesh rotting from all the mucky water
Describe 5 features of a trench and explain what each one was used for
Ammunition shelf - used to store extra bullets in a trench rather than holding them
Dug-out - Small hole in the trench wall used for resting
Fire step - men used this to see over the parapet when firing
Parapet - made from sand bags and excess mud to give extra protection from bullets
Drainage stump - used to hold rain water to try and prevent flooding
Three Different types of gas were used. Explain how each one was used differently
Mustard gas was by far the most deadly weapon used as it was colourless. It was used to cause blistering skin, irritation of eyes and respiratory tract.
Chlorine gas causes a burning sensation in the throat and severe chest pains it could take out huge groups of men at once
Phosgene gas is also colourless and its immediate effects are eye irritation, coughing and it can also build up fluid in the lungs