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Y3M - Urology > Scrotal Pain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Scrotal Pain Deck (15)
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Clinical features

Establish onset, course and duration of pain

Any associated urinary symptoms

Ask about sexual history and history of previous surgery

Examination of the scrotum should be done as well.

Focus on inspection for testicular lie and any signs of inflammation + palpation to find lumps or localised tenderness.


Explain cremasteric reflex

Stroke the proximal and medial aspect of the thigh

Normal response is contraction of the cremaster muscle leading to retraction of tests upwards on the ipsilateral side.

Absence = potential sign of testicular torsion with 88% and 86% in sens and spec respectively.


Explain Prehn's sign

Alleviation of scrotal pain by lifting of the testicle

This is suggestive of the diagnosis of acute epididymitis

It has a sensitivity of 91% and spec of 78%



Urine dipstick + cultures

Urethral swab if STI is suspected

Blood tests mainly FBC, CRP and U&Es

USS of scrotum might be done if uncertainty arise to identify any structural or inflammatory pathology and the patency of blood vessels.

Do not delay scrotal exploration by doing ultrasound if torsion is suspected



Testicular torsion

Torsion of testicular and epididymal appendages


Testicular cancer

Referred pain

Henoc-Schönlein Purpura

Viral Orchitis


Explain testicular torsion

Twisting of spermati cord with occlusion of testicualr and cremasteric arteries

This leads to ischaemia and subsequent testicular infarction


Explain torsion of testicular and epididymal appendages

Testicular appendix aka hydatid of Morgagni and epididymal appendix are remnant of embryoligical development.

They can twist leading to unilateral scrotal pain and tenderness

There is often a normal testicular lie and present cremasteric reflex


Examination findigns of Torsion of Testicular and Epididymal Appendages

Blue dot sign (i.e., tender nodule with blue discoloration on the upper pole of the testis) found in the upper half of the hemi-scrotum sign due to infarction of the appendices.




Treatment of   Torsion of Testicular and Epididymal Appendages


Surgical exploration is usually required to rule out testicular torsion


Explain referred pain

Anteriolateral aspect of the scrotum is supplied by branches of the genitofemoral and the ilioinguinal nerve

Posterior scrotum is supplied by the perineal branches of the pudendal nerve and posterior femoral cutaneous


Irritation of these nerve can result in referred pain.

E.g. luminal ureteric stones or strangulated inguinal hernia.


What is Henoch-Schönlein purpura

IgA-mediated small vessel vasculitis affecting skin, mucous membranes and kidneys.


Clinical features of HSP

In children with classic triad of purpuric rash on limbs, arthritis and abdo pain.

There might also be scrotal symptoms including pain, erythema and swelling.


Blood tests of HSP

Raised CRP or ESR

Raised serum IgA

Diagnosis is made through biopsy of kidney or skin to identify IgA deposition


Causes of viral orchitis

Most commonly mumps leading to inflammation of the testes.

It casues bilateral acute scrotal pain + swelling

Develop around 4 to 8 days after initial parotitis


Management of viral orchitis


It is self-limiting

Swelling acn persist up to 6 weeks post-infection