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Flashcards in SDoH Powerpoint Deck (25)
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1

SDoH definition

-Factors and influences that shape the health of individuals & communities
-homes, schools, workplaces, communities
-social supports -- family, friends, community
-behavior & genetics

2

Influences on Health

-Factors are interrelated
-Combined influences of these factors determine health status

3

Income Influences on Health

-People in the top income bracket are healthier than middle income earners
-Middle income earners are healthier than people with low incomes
-Poorer people= less healthy

4

Death rates, Men in Richest vs Poorest Neighbourhoods

-Health is a function of absolute average income (GNP per capita) and its income distribution
-Poorer people have higher death rates due to circulatory disease, lung cancer, injuries and suicide

5

People's perception of how healthy they are?

-Social status refers to a person's rank or social position in relation to others -- their relative importance.
-Higher socio-economic status correlates positively with good health.

6

How does SES effect health?

-Determines the degree of control people have over life circumstances
-Affects capacity to act & make choices for themselves
-Higher social position and income acts as shield against disease

7

Why higher income= better health?

-With higher income, one has the ability to:
-Purchase adequate housing, food and other basic needs
-Make more choices and feel more in control over decisions in life
-this feeling of being in control is basic to good health

8

How many Canadians fell below low-income cut-offs in 1995?

1 in 5 Canadians (18%)

9

% of children living in poverty

-1995: 21% of children under the age of 18

10

Children living in low-income neighbourhoods

-Children living in lowest income neighborhoods are at greatest risk of dying from injuries and injuries are the #1 cause of death for children 1 to 19 years of age.
-Poor children are also more likely to suffer from mental health problems than their wealthier counterparts.
-A 1983 survey of Ontario school children indicated that poor children were more likely to experience various mental health problems, including emotional disorders, hyperactivity and conduct disorders

11

Social Support Networks

-Having family or friends available in times of need
-Believing that one is valued as a provider of support when others are in need
-Effective responses to stress and have the support of others acts as a buffer

12

Social Support Networks can affect:

-Psychological (emotional) health
-Physical health
-Health perceptions (how healthy one feels)
-How individuals and families manage disease & illness

13

Education

-Higher education= higher rates of…
-Employed
-Have jobs with higher SES
-Have stable incomes
-Financial security
-Job security & satisfaction
-Skills to identify and solve individual and group problems.
-increases the choices and opportunities available to people.
-improves “health literacy” - the ability to gain access to information and services that may keep ourselves and our families healthy.
-can unlock the innate creativity and innovation in people, and add to our collective ability to generate wealth.

14

Education & self-rated health

-As education increases, self-rated health status improves
-18% of respondents with grade school rated their health as “excellent” compared with 38% of university graduates.
-Self-rated health status summarizes physical and mental health as experienced by the individual, according to their own values.

15

Employment & working conditions

-Unemployment and underemployment= poorer health
-People with more control over their work circumstances and fewer stress-related demanding on the job are healthier and often live longer than those in more stressful or more risky work
-Workplace hazards and injuries are significant causes of health problems

16

Impact of Unemployment

-Unemployed for any significant amount of time tend to die earlier, have higher rates of suicide and heart disease
-Spouses of unemployed workers experience increased emotional problems
-Children & teens whose parents are unemployed= higher risk of emotional and behavioral problems
-Physical and mental health after unemployment is not immediate or complete

17

Social Environment

-Values and norm of a society influence the health of individuals and populations
-Supportive society is stable, safe and respects diversity
-People enjoy good working relationships and communities are closely knit
-Health is better when people have emotional support and participate in their society
-Social stability, recognition of diversity, safety, good working relationships, and cohesive communities provide a supportive society that reduces or avoids many potential risks to good health.
-Studies have shown that low availability of emotional support and low social participation have a negative impact on health and well-being.

18

Natural Environment

-Air, water & land
-Effects short and long-term
-Freedom from exposure to toxins
-Air quality has been improved but still affects many Canadians
-As populations and industries expand into watersheds, the quality of drinking water is declining.
-Industrial and agricultural pollution of land also has the potential to affect human health.
-Requires cooperative action by all levels of society.
-In the longer term, if the economy grows by degrading the environment and depleting natural resources, human health will suffer (environmental paradox)

19

Built Environment

-Housing, workplace safety, community safety, transportation, road design, telephones and communications
-Improving population health requires both a sustained, thriving economy and a healthy, sustainable environment.
-Challenge= maintain a thriving economy while preserving the integrity of the environment and the availability of resources.

20

Gender

-Linked to power and influence society gives to men and women (diff than biological differences)
-Influences health status
-Much of the research on health and health care is based on studies of men
-society-determined roles, personality traits, attitudes, behaviours, values, relative power and influence that society ascribes to the two sexes on a differential basis
-“Gendered” norms influence the health system’s practices and priorities. Many health issues are a function of gender-based social status or roles.
-Women are more vulnerable to gender-based sexual or physical violence, low income, lone parenthood, gender-based causes of exposure to health risks and threats (eg. Accidents, STD’s, suicide, smoking, substance abuse, prescription drugs, physical inactivity).
-Need to address gender inequality and gender bias within and beyond the health system will improve population health.

21

Culture

-How people link with the health system, their access to health information and their lifestyle choices
-Products of personal history and wider situational, social, political, geographic and economic factors.
-Shapes the way people interact with a health care system
-Participation in programs of prevention and health promotion, access to health information, health related lifestyle choices, their understanding of health and illness and their priorities.

22

Culture & Health

-“dominant” cultural values largely determine the social and economic environment of communities
Greater health risks due to:
-Marginalization
-Loss/devaluation of culture and language
-Lack of access to culturally appropriate health services
-Dominant cultural values that contribute to the perpetuation of conditions such as marginalization, stigmatization, loss or devaluation of language and culture and lack of access to culturally appropriate health care and services.

23

Personal Health Practices and Coping Skills

-Prevent disease
-Increase self-reliance
-Handle outside influences and stresses
-develop skills that allow them to cope with the ups and downs of life (internal resources people have to handle outside influences and pressures)
-Most common health problems are based on personal choices related to smoking, alcohol and drug use, dietary habits and levels of physical activity

24

Childhood Development

-Early childhood experiences effects coping skills, competence and future well-being
-Low income families= LBW, eat less nutritious foods and have difficulties with health and social problems long-term
-Rates of family dysfunction and parental depression are higher in poor families
-Poor children do not have the same scholastic and verbal skills entering school as their non-impoverished peers (1994-> NLSCY)

25

Health Services

-Move towards “broader resources” to support well-being
-Services to maintain and promote health, prevent disease and restore health/ function effect population health
-Narrow view of health as absence of disease shifted to emphasis on the need for social & personal resources and physical capabilities
-Availability of preventive and primary care services and improved health (eg. Well baby and immunization clinics, education programs about healthy choices).