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Flashcards in Section 1 Deck (32):
1

Pharmacokinetics?

How the body affects a specific drug after administration

2

Pharmacodynamics?

What the drug does to the body and how it does it (mechanism of action)

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Prophylaxis?

Agent given to prevent onset of disease

4

Drug tolerance?

Repeated use of the drug leads to a decrease in drug effect for same dose eg. opioid use

5

Drug dependence?

Enables day to day survival

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Tachyphylaxis?

Diminished responsiveness following repeat dosing of the same drug concentration

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Type A drug reaction:

Augmented, dose related
- Predictable, common
- Usually mild
- Exaggerated effect
- High morbidity, low mortality
- We understand the mechanism of action of the drug and how it can generate certain effects

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Type B drug reaction:

Bizzare, non dose related
- Unpredictable, uncommon
- Increased severity
- High morbidity and mortality

Factors for risk include:
Variation in drug chemistry
Receptor abnormalities
Drug metabolism abnormalities
Drug-drug interactions

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Type C drug reaction:

Chronic, dose related and time related
- Consequence of long term use
- Tolerance, physical dependence

10

Type D drug reaction:

Delayed, time related

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Type E drug reaction:

End of use, withdrawal
- Related to withdrawal of the drug

12

Type F drug reaction:

Failure, unexpected failure of therapy
- Eg inadequate dose
- May be lacking enzyme that is needed to convert drugs which can result in failure therapy

13

Adverse drug events:

Injury resulting from medical intervention related to a drug
- Occurs while taking the drug but may not be directly due to the drug
Eg. Infusion pump malfunction

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Adverse effects:

Unwanted effect that results from a pathway other than the molecular target effect and may or may not be dose related (side effects)

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Specificity:

How successful a drug is in interacting with only one molecular target having only one effect. No drugs currently lay claim to having complete specificity

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Selectivity:

Drug preferentially binds to one receptor over another

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Affinity:

Strength the reaction between a drug and its molecular target

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Molecular targets:

Transporter proteins
Enzymes
Ion channels
Receptors

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Agonist:

Provides a functional response in the same way as the endogenous agonist
Determined by the role of the receptor

Partial agonist:
Produce less than maximal effect

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Antagonists:

Blockers
Bind but produce no functional response
(No efficacy)

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Competitive reversible antagonist:

- Compete for binding site
- Effect can be overcome by increasing concentration of the receptor agonist

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Competitive irreversible antagonist:

- Receptor becomes permanently blocked

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EC50:

Is the drug concentration at which the drug produces 50% of the maximal response

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Efficacy:

The ability of the drug to elicit a response once bound to the receptor

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Therapeutic index:

An indicator of drug dosing margin of safety
= Toxic dose divided by therapeutic dose
Low values indicate higher risk for adverse events

26

Ionisation of acids and bases:

- Un-ionised drug forms are lipid soluble meaning that they can diffuse across phospholipid cell membranes
- Ionised drug forms are lipid insoluble and do not diffuse readily across phospholipid cell membranes
WATER SOLUBLE DRUGS MEAN THEY CANNOT PASS THE MEMBRANE

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Remains ionised/unionised:

Acid in an acid environment remains unionised
Base in a acid environment becomes ionised
Base in a basic environment remains unionised
Acid in a basic environment becomes ionised

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Hypertrophy:

Muscles enlarge in response to exercise

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Atrophy:

Increasing age can cause shrinkage in organs and tissue

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Metaplasia:

One cell type being changed to another cell type

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Dysplasia:

Deranged growth

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Anaplasia:

Backward growth