Flashcards in Section 1: Applied Anatomy and physiology Deck (32):
What are the four chambers of the heart
Right atrium///Left atrium
Right ventricle/// Left ventricle
What is the role of the heart
To pump blood around the body for the transportation of Oxygen
What are the blood vessels of the heart and what are their roles
Vena Cava - Delivers deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium.
Pulmonary vein - Delivers oxygenated blood to the left atrium
Pulmonary artery - Leaves the right ventricle with deoxygenated blood to go to the lungs
Aorta - Leaves the left ventricle with oxygenated blood leading to the body
What is the order that the impulse travels in for the cardiac conduction system
Bundle of his
What is the difference between the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems
Parasympathetic - Decreases heart rate
Sympathetic - Increases heart rate
What are the three receptors and what are their roles
Chemoreceptors - Detects changes in blood acidity levels. (Increase in carbon dioxide levels would mean an increased heart rate)
Barorecptors - Detects changes in blood pressure. (Increase in blood pressure means decrease in heart rate)
Propriorecptors - Detect changes in muscle movement (Increase in muscle movement means increase in heart rate)
What is Starlings law
Increased venous return => Greater diastolic filling of the heart=> Cardiac muscle stretched => More force of contraction => Increased ejection fraction.
What is the formula to work out cardiac output
Cardiac output = Stroke volume X Heart rate
Q = 70ml X 72BPM
Q = 5040ml (5.04L)
How do you work out Maximum heart rate
220 - Age
220 - 18 = 202
18 year old has a maximum heart rate of 202
What is Cardiac hypertrophy and Bradycardia
Cardiac hypertrophy - Thickening of the muscular wall of the heart so it becomes bigger and stronger
Bradycardia - A decrease in resting heart rate to below 60 beats per minute
Describe the problems that someone may experience if they don't exercise regularly
Heart disease - When your coronary arteries become blocked so they are unable to deliver enough oxygen to the heart. If a piece of fatty deposit breaks off it could cause a blood clot which will cause a heart attack.
High blood pressure - The force exerted by the blood against the blood vessel wall. Higher blood pressure puts extra strain on the arteries and cause you to have a heart attack.
Cholesterol - Lack of exercise could mean there would be more Low density lipoprotiens which are seen as bad cholesterol than high density lipoprotiens which are seen as good cholesterol.
Stroke - This is when the blood supply to the brain is cut off causing damaging to brain cells which cause them to die. This can be done as either when a blood clot stops the flow or if a blood vessel supplying blood to the brain bursts.
What is Cardiovascular drift
Cardiovascular drift occurs after a period of exercise (After 10 minutes) => Heart rate increases => Stroke volume decreases => Because fluid lost as sweat => Resulting in a reduced plasma volume => Reduced venous return => Cardiac output also increases due to more energy needed to cool body/sweat.
What are the two types of circulation
Pulmonary - Deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs and oxygenated blood back to the heart
Systemic - Oxygenated blood to the body from the heart and then the return of deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart.
What factors aid venous return
Stretched muscle pump - When muscle contract and relax they change shape. This change in shape means the muscles press on the nearby veins and cause a pumping effect and squeeze the blood towards the heart.
The respiratory pump - When muscles contract and relax during breathing i n and out pressure changes occur in the chest and stomach cavities. these changes in pressure compress the nearby veins and assist blood return to the heart.
Pocket valves - It is important that blood in the veins only flows in one direction. The presence of valves ensures that this happens. This is because once the blood has passed through the valves, they close to prevent the blood flowing back
What impact does blood pressure have on venous return
When systolic pressure increases there will also be an increase in venous return. If systolic pressure decreases then venous return would also decrease.
Can you describe the Bohr shift and what are the factors for this happening.
When an increase in blood carbon dioxide and a decrease in pH results in a reduction of the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen. This is when the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve will shift to the right.
The factors are:
Increase in blood temperature
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases
What is the redistribution of blood and why must blood flow to the brain remain constant
Redistribution of blood is when blood will be transported to the area where it is most needed. during exercise this will be the working muscles, the brain and the heart. The flow to the brain must remain constant as it needs to function correctly as if not there is a risk of a stroke.
What are the two ways in which blood flow is controlled.
Vasodilation - This is the widening of the blood vessels to increase the flow of blood into the capillaries.
Vasoconstriction - This is when the blood vessels narrow to reduce the blood flow into the capillaries.
Describe Arterio-venous difference (A-VO2 diff)
The difference between the oxygen content of the arterial blood arriving at the muscles and the venous blood leaving the muscles.
What is the correct passage of air
How does the structure of the alveoli help with the diffusion of gases
Big surface area
One cell thick
Good blood supply
What muscles are used when breathing at rest and during exercise
At rest - Diaphragm and external intercostals
During exercise - Diaphragm, external intercostals, sternocleidomastoid, scalenes and pectoralis major
At rest - Diaphragm and external intercostals just relax
During exercise - Internal intercostals and abdominals
Name all lung volumes giving a description and how it changes during exercise
Tidal volume - Volume of air breathed in or out per breath. This increases during exercise.
Inspiratory reserve volume - Volume of air that can b forcibly inspired after a normal breath. This will decrease during exercise.
Expiratory reserve volume - Volume of air that can be forcibly expired after a normal breath. This will have a slight decrease during exercise.
Residual volume - Volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximum expiration. This says the same during exercise.
Minute ventilation - Volume of air breathed in or out per minute. This has a big increase during exercise.
What is gaseous exchange and how does it work
The taking in of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide. If partial pressure of oxygen is less in the tissue then it is in the blood it will diffuse into the tissue/muscles
What are the three muscle fibre types. Give a sport where it would be used and give three characteristics for each.
Slow twitch (Type 1) - This muscle fibre would be used for a long distance running event. It has a very high aerobic capacity with low fatigability and a low anaerobic capacity.
Fast oxidative glycolytic (Type 2A) - This would be suited for an event such as 1500M. It has a medium aerobic capacity with medium fatigability and a high anaerobic capacity.
Fast glycolytic (Type 2B) - This would be suited for an event such as the 100M. It has a low aerobic capacity. It also has a high fatigability with a very high anaerobic capacity.
What is the All or none law
When there is a minimum amount of stimulation called the threshold. If the sequence of impulses is equal to or more than the threshold, al of the muscle fibres in a motor unit will contract. if it doesn't pass the threshold no muscle action will occur.
What are the two ways that you can increase the strength of a contraction and can you describe them.
Wave summation - Where there is a repeated nerve impulse with no time to relax so a smooth, sustained contraction occurs rather than twitches.
Spatial summation - When the strength of contraction changes by altering the number and size of the motor units.
What is the difference between Muscle spindles and Golgi tendons.
Muscle spindles - These detect how far and how fast a muscle is being stretched and produce the stretch reflex.
Golgi tendons - These detect an increase in muscle tension.
What are the two types of joints and where would you find them
Ball and socket - This would be found at the shoulder and at the hip.
Hinge - This can be found at the ankle, knee and the elbow.
What are the planes and axes and what ones go together
Sagittal plane / Transverse axis - This is for a forward movement
Transverse plane / Longitudinal axis - This for a rotation movement
Frontal plane / Sagittal axis - This is for a side to side movement such as abduction
What are all of the joint actions
Flexion - Decreasing the angle between the bones of a joint
Extension - Increasing the angle between the bones of a joint
Plantar-flexion - Pointing the toes / pushing up on your toes
Dorsi-flexion - Pulling the toes up to the shin
Hyper-extension - Increasing the angle beyond 180 between the bones o a joint
Abduction - Movement away from the midline f the body
Adduction - Movement towards the middle of the body