Section 4: Exercise physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 4: Exercise physiology Deck (14):

What are the two types of carbohydrates and how do they differ

Simple - These are found in fruits and are easily digested by the body. They are also found in processed foods and anything refined with sugar
Complex - These are found in nearly all plant-based foods, and usually take longer for the body to digest. They are most commonly found in bread, pasta, rice and vegetables.


What is the main function of carbohydrates

They are the principle source of energy used by the body at all levels of activity, from rest to intense activity


What is the main function of fats

They are an energy source for long duration, low-intensity exercise.


What is the main function of protein

They are necessary for muscle growth and repair.


What is the main function of vitamins

They keep an individual healthy with a good immune system and this allows a performer to train maximally and recover quickly.


Give three examples of vitamins giving the source thy come from and what their function is

Vitamin C
Source - Green vegetables and fruit
Function - Protects cells and keeps them healthy. Helps the maintenance of bones, teeth, gums and connective tissues such as ligaments
Vitamin B12
Source - Red meat, dairy products and fish
Function - Makes red blood cells and keeps the nervous system healthy. Releases energy from food.
Vitamin D
Source - Made by our body under the skin when it is exposed to sunlight. Oily fish and dairy produce
Function - Has a role in absorption of calcium, which keeps the teeth and bones healthy


What are the three minerals and what are their functions

Calcium - This is needed for strong bones and teeth and is also necessary for efficient nerve and muscle function.
Sodium - This helps regulate fluid levels in the body. However, too much sodium is linked to an increase in blood pressure which can increase the chances of a stroke or heart attack.
Iron - This helps in the formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells which helps transport oxygen. A lack of iron can lead to anaemia


What are the mains sources of fibre and what is their function.

Sources - Wholemeal bread, pasta, potatoes, nuts, seeds, fruit, vegetables, pulses.
Function - Slow down the time it takes for the body to break down food, which results in a slower, more sustained release of energy. It also helps with digestion and prevents constipation.


What is the main function of water

It transports nutrients, hormones and waste products around the body. It helps with the regulation of body temperature. It also helps with dehydration.


What is dehydration and what are the side effects

This is when the body is losing more fluids than its taking in.
Blood viscosity (thickness) will increase
Reduced sweating - increased temperature
Muscle fatigue and headaches
Reduction in the exchange of waste products
Increased heart rate - lower cardiac output
Decreased performance


What is glycogen loading. give positives and negatives

This is when a performer will use dietary manipulation in an attempt to increase glycogen stores meaning they can perform at a higher intensity for longer. this is used by endurance athletes.
Positives - Increased glycogen storage, Increased glycogen stores in the muscles, Delays fatigue, Increased endurance capacity.
Negatives - In carbo loading phase - Water retention, heavy legs, affects digestion, weight increase.
In depletion phase - irritability, lack of energy.


What is Creatine Monohydtare. Give positives and negatives

It is used to increase the amount of Phosphocreatine stored in the muscles. this is then used to fuel the ATP-PC system which provides energy. This will also help this energy system last longer. This is used by athletes performing explosive movements.
Positives - Aim to provide ATP (energy), Replenishes phosphocreatine stores, Allows the ATP-PC system to last longer, Improves muscle mass
Negatives - Possible side effects (Muscle cramps, diarrhoea, water retention, bloating, vomiting), Hinders aerobic performance, Mixed evidence to show benefits.


What is Sodium bicarbonate. Give positives and negatives

This increases the buffering capacity of the blood so it can neutralise the negative effects of lactic acid and hydrogen ions. It reduces acidity levels in the muscles and helps to reduce fatigue.
Positives - Reduced acidity in the muscle cells, Delays fatigue, Increases the buffer capacity of the blood.
Negative - Possible side effects (Vomiting, pain, cramping, diarrhoea, bloating.


What is Cafieine

This is a stimulant which can increase alertness and reduce fatigue. It is thought that it can improve the mobilisation of fatty acids in the body. This is why it is used by endurance performers.
Positives - Increased mental alertness, Reduces effect of fatigue, Allows fats to be used as an energy source, Improves decision making / reaction time, May benefit aerobic performance.
Negative - Loss of fine control, Against rules of most sports in large quantities, Possible side effects (Dehydration, insomnia, Muscle cramps, Stomach cramps, vomiting, irregular heartbeat, diarrhoea.