Section 1-Human Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 1-Human Cells Deck (72)
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1

What name is given to human body cells that are not involved in reproduction

Somatic cells

2

How many chromosomes are found in somatic cells

46

3

By what process do somatic cells produce more somatic cells

Mitosis

4

What name is given to the human cells involved in producing the gametes for reproduction

Germline cells

5

By what process do germline cells produce more germline cells

Mitosis

6

In which part of the body are germline cells found

Ovaries and Testes

7

What name is given to the abnormal mass of cells formed by uncontrolled cell division of cancer cells

Tumour

8

To which carbon attachment points do bases and phosphate attach in a DNA nucleotide

Carbon 1. Carbon 5

9

What name is given to the backbone of a DNA strand formed from deoxyribose sugar and phosphate

Sugar-phosphate backbone

10

What type of bonds form between bases on the two complementary stand

Hydrogen bonds

11

What term is used to describe the fact that the two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other

Anti-parallel

12

Name the two ends of one DNA strand

3’ and 5’

13

What name is given to the the arrangements of the two strands of DNA

Double Helix

14

What name is given to the strand that is found on the Kraft handsise on a DNA strand that runs from 3’ to 5’

Leading strand

15

What name is given to the short sequence of the nucleotides that attach to the 3’ end of the parental strand about to be replicated

Primer

16

What name is given to the enzyme needed to replicate the strands during DNA replication

DNA polymerase

17

How is the replication of the leading strand described because it is replicated without any interruption

Lagging strand

18

How is the replication of the lagging strand described because it is replicated on fragments

Discontinuous

19

Name the enzyme needed to join the fragments together in the lagging strand

Ligase

20

Name 5 requirements of DNA replication

DNA template strand
ATP
DNA nucleotides
Primers
DNA polymerase and ligase

21

What name is given to the technique that can be used to create many copies of a piece of DNA outside the body

Polymerase chain reaction PCR

22

What word is used to describe the fact that you are making multiple copies of a piece of DNA in PCR

Amplication

23

Describe the first stage in PCR

Heat the DNA strand to 92-98*C to break the hydrogen bonds and deprecate the strands

24

The next stage of PCR after heating involves cooling the DNA down to between 50/65*C. Why does the DNA have to be cooled?

So the primers can attach

25

Lastly the DNA is heated to 70-80*C to allow an enzyme to replicate the strand. Name the enzyme involved

Heat tolerant DNA polymerase

26

Name three uses of amplified DNA produced through PCR

Forensic (crime scene investigation)
Medical (genetic disorder diagnosis)
Paternity dispute

27

Describe the difference between DNA & RNA

DNA- double stranded
-deoxyribose sugar
-A&T G&C



RNA-single stranded
-ribose sugar
-A&U G&C

28

Name the two stages involved in gene expression

Translation & transcription

29

In which region of the cell does transcription take place

Nucleus

30

Name the region on the DNA strand where transcription begins

Promoter region