Flashcards in Section 103 Unit 3 Deck (41):
Types of Stocks
Shareholder of Record
A shareholder of record is any owner who is listed as such on the record date.
The record date for the corporation is the second business day after the ex-dividend date. On the record date, trades are settled and reflected on the corporation’s books.
The ex-dividend date is the first date on which a security is traded that a buyer is not entitled to receive a previously declared dividend.
Common Stock Ownership
An investor is issued a certificate (certificate form) of ownership by the corporation indicating the number of shares owned.
Investors may use a brokerage firm to hold stock in a brokerage account on their behalf (street name).
Blue-chip stocks are stocks issued by highly regarded, usually well-capitalized companies that have historically paid dividends regardless of the condition of the broader economy.
Growth stocks are stocks issued by companies that usually have sales and earnings growth rates exceeding those of the average company in their industry. Growth stocks typically do not pay dividends; instead, they invest their earnings back into the company.
Income stocks are stocks issued by companies that pay regular, consistent dividends and provide current income for investors.
Value stocks are stocks currently trading at prices that are low, given the issuing company’s historical earnings and asset values.
Cyclical stocks are stocks issued by companies that tend to prosper in a growing economy and tend to do poorly during declining economic conditions.
Defensive stocks are stocks issued by companies that are relatively unaffected by the business cycle.
Receive dividends each year equal to a stated percentage of the par value of the stock. Not guaranteed the payment of the dividend.
Cumulative Preferred Stock
The corporation is required to first pay any unpaid preferred dividends from prior years to the preferred shareholder before paying any current dividend.
Purchasers of Preferred Stock
Investors looking for a potential yield (in the form of dividend income) higher than that available from the company’s common stock;
Investors wanting a fixed, relatively steady cash flow; and
Corporations attempting to take advantage of the 70% or more dividends received exclusion from taxation. Note that large corporations are the most prominent purchasers of preferred stock because of favorable tax treatment and not necessarily the investment potential of the stock issue.
A stock dividend is a dividend paid to shareholders of record in the form of additional shares of company stock, rather than in cash.
Taxation of Stock Dividends
Unless the stockholder has the right to receive the dividend in cash rather than stock (which would trigger the constructive receipt doctrine of income taxation), receipt of the stock dividend is generally not taxable for federal income tax purposes
In a stock split, the par value of each share of stock is reduced, and the number of shares is increased proportionately.
Taxation of Stock Splits
Stock splits are never income taxable to the shareholders.
Reverse Stock Split
The company reduces the total number of shares outstanding.
When a corporation plans to raise funds by issuing new stock to the public each current shareholder is given one right for each share of stock. The right allows them to purchase the company's stock below the current market price. It prevents dilution of ownership share of the corporation.
Stock Appreciation Right
An employee benefit, usually granted only to executives of a corporation, and is a form of equity-based compensation.
Like call options, warrants give the owner the right to purchase a specified number of common stock shares for a specified period of time at a specified price, normally higher than the current market price, as of the date of the issue of the warrant. Issued by corporations. Typically matures no less than five years. Corporations use them to lower the cost of capital necessary to float the issue.
American Depositary Receipts (ADRs)
Are trust receipts issued by a U.S. bank for shares of a foreign company purchased and held by a foreign branch of the bank. Pay dividends in U.S. dollars but are declared in local currency. Traded on exchanges so they are liquid and marketable investments. The foreign company may withhold foreign taxes due, which can be deducted.
Open-End Investment Company Characteristics
It is referred to as open end because it can create an unlimited number of shares. Shares for the fund are always priced at net asset value at the end of the trading day.
Net Asset Value
The fair market value of the securities within the portfolio, less any outstanding liabilities, divided by the number of shares outstanding.
Securities designed to mirror a selected market index, such as the Standard & Poor's 500 Index.
Restricts its investments to a particular sector of the market, such as energy or health care.
Asset Allocation Funds
These funds focus on providing a diversified portfolio by investing across various asset classes, including equities, bonds, and money markets
These funds invest in fixed percentages of equity, bond, and money market securities.
Investors Interested in:
Safety of Principal
Maximizing Current Income
Should invest in:
Growth - Stock Funds
Income - Bond Funds
Safety of Principal - Government Bond Funds
Immediate Liquidity - Money Market Funds
Tax Relief - Municpal Bond Funds
Maximizing Current Income - Corporate Bond Funds
Mutual Fund Taxation
Shareholders are taxed annually on the distributions, but are permitted to increase their adjusted basis in the shares. This is not the result if the distributions from the fund are paid directly to the shareholders in cash. In this event, the shareholders are taxed annually on the distributions, but are not permitted to subsequently adjust their basis in the shares.
Closed-End Investment Company Characteristics
Their shares trade in the same manner as publicly traded stocks in the secondary market. Because shares are subject to supply and demand, they will generally sell at a discount or premium relative to NAV.
Characteristics of Unit Investment Trusts (UIT)
Investment company whose units are sold in the secondary market, but not on the major exchanges. As income is earned and securities mature, investors receive both income and principal from the trust. Generally unmanaged or passively managed funds. No board of directors, corporate officers, or investment adviser.
Characteristics of Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs)
An Index fund that can be bought and sold throughout the trading day. Lower expenses than Mutual Funds due to less management. Investor may redeem some of the shares for a distribution of some of the fund's underlying the stock.
Advantages of Exchange-Traded Funds
An investment in ETFs may be advantageous for investors who:
seek to invest in an industry sector or index but who do not want to have to consider a multitude of actively managed securities;
are interested in a low-cost, tax-efficient portfolio; and
are interested in a security that may be bought on margin and can be sold short.
Hedge Fund Concept
Generally is an unregistered, privately offered, managed pool of capital for wealthy, financially sophisticated investors. Typically implements a wide array of investment strategies, including heavy borrowing and short selling, in an attempt to achieve a superior return.
Features of Separately Managed Accounts
The professional manager of the account purchases the securities in the portfolio on behalf of the investor, not on behalf of the fund.
Financing for a privately held company. Typically in the form of convertible preferred stock and is characterized by high risk with the potential for high return.
Characteristics of Private Placements
Rather than the time and expense of an IPO the business will sell their securities privately. Avoid SEC registration. Limited to 35 unaccredited investors, but is available to an unlimited number of accredited investors. Accredited investors are individuals with more than $200,000 of annual income.
Advantages of Limited Parternerships
Business venture participation with limited liability;
Start-up financing shared with other partners, whereby, one individual is not responsible for all the start-up costs; and
Receipt of periodic income payments.