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Flashcards in Section 8: Behavior Change Procedures Deck (77):
1

Premack Principle 

(Grandma's Law; Relativity Theory of Reinforcement) 

  • a principle that states that making the opportunity to engage in a high probability behavior contingent upon the occurrence of a low probability behavior 
  • first then statment 

2

Response Deprivation Hypothesis (RDH)

  • built on the premack principle 
  • a model for predicting whether contingent access to one behavior will function as reinforcement for engaging in another behavior based on wehther access to the contingent behavior represents a restriction of the activity compared to baseline 
  • restricting access to the behavior creates deprivation that serves as an EO, which makes the restricked behavior a very strong form of reinforcement 
  • Ex. restrict watching TV to reinforce the low probability behavior of doing academics 

3

Imitation 

F MIC

  • four behavior environment relations that functionally define imitation 
    1. Formal Similarity 
      • model and behavior must have formal similarity- same sense mode
    2. Model 
      • the stimulus that is presented in an effort to evoke imitative behavior 
    3. Immediacy 
      • an imitative behavior must immediately follow the model 
        • "imitation" may occur at later times, but this is not true imitation 
    4. Controlled Relation 
      • the model must be the controlling variable (SD) for the imitative behavior
        • best evidenced when the model is novel and still evokes an imitation--GENERALIZED IMITATION  

4

2 Types of Models

  • Planned Models- prearranged antecedent stimuli that help learners acquire new skills 
  • Unplanned Models- occur in everyday social interactions 

5

Imitation Training - 5 Steps 

  1. Assess and teach any prerequisite skills for imitation training 
    • ​​attending skills 
    • gross and fine motor skills 
    • if challenging behaviors interfere with teaching, must address them first 
  2. Select models for training 
    • ​​choose about 25 behaviors (including gross and fine motor, movement of body parts, and manipulation of objects) 
    • present one model at a time before presenting more complex sequences 
  3. Pretest 
    • ​​test what the learner can already imitate 
  4. Sequence models for training 
    • ​​using pretest results, arrange the models from least to most difficult
  5. Implement imitation training 
    • ​​Pre Assessment- assess the learner's current performance level to determine progress 
    • Training- repeatedly present the models used in pre assessment 
    • Post Assessment- assesses how well the learner performs previously and recently learned behaviors 
    • Probes for Imitative Behavior- probes assess if the learner is developing an imitative response 

6

Guidelines for Imitation Training

  • short 10 to 15 minutes a couple of times a day
  • reinforce both prompted and independent imitative responses 
  • pair verbal praise and attention with tangible reinforcers 
  • fade out prompts 

7

Shaping 

  • a process involving systematically and differentially reinforcing successive approximations to a terminal behavior 
  • Differential Reinforcement- reinforcing those responses within a response class that meet a specific criterion along some dimension (e.g. frequency, magnitude, etc) and placing all over responses in the class on extinction 
  • Successive Approximations- the sequence of new response classes that emerge during the shaping process as a result of differential reinforcement. Each successive approximation is closer in form to the terminal behavior than the response class it replaces 
  • shaping teaches novel behaviors 
  • clicker training is an application of shaping 

8

Response Differentiation 

  • a behavior change produced by differential reinforcement 
  • reinforced members of the current response class occur with greater frequency and unreinforced members occur less frequently (because they are on extinction) 
  • overall result = a new response class

9

2 Types of Shaping Methods

AW

  • Shaping Across Response Topographies 
    • topography of bheavior changes during shaping 
    • behaviors are still members of the same response class 
    • ex. speech therapist teaching novel vocalizations to an individual with no vocal abilities 
  • Shaping Within Response Topographies 
    • topography of behavior remains constant 
    • another measureable dimension of behavior is changed (e.g. duration of the behavior) 
    • ex. duration of time spent practicing piano increased via shaping 

10

Shaping vs. Fading

  • both change behavior gradually
    • shaping by changing response requirements 
    • fading by changing antecedent stimuli 

11

9 Guidelines for Shaping

  1. Assess Terminal Behavior and Available Resources 
  2. Select the Terminal Behavior 
  3. Determine Criterion for Sucess - specify accuracy, speed, duration, magnitude, etc of the terminal behavior 
  4. Analyze the Response Class - identify the approximations that might be emitted during shaping 
  5. Identify the First Behavior to Reinforce - some degree of the behavior should already be occuring in the learner's repertoire--the behavior chosen should be a member of the targeted response class
  6. Eliminate Interfering and Extraneous Stimuli 
  7. Proceed in Gradual Stages 
  8. Limit the Number of Approximations at Each Level - if too many trials occur at a certain approximation, the behavior may become too firmly established 
  9. Continue Reinforcement When the Terminal Behavior is Achieved- if you don't you may lose the terminal behavior  

12

Behavior Chain 

  • A specific sequence of discrete responses, each associated with a particular stimulus conditions, where each response and the associated stimulus condition serve as an individual component of the chain 
  • when the components are linked together, they produce a terminal outcome 
  • each response in a chain produce a stimulus change that simultaneously serves two functions:
    • a conditioned reinforcer for the response that produced it and 
    • an SD for the next response in the chain 
    • an exception to the dual function is the first and last responses; these serve as either an SD or a conditioned reinforcer 
  • Ex. diailing a phone number 

13

3 Important Characteristics of a Behavior Chain 

  1. Performance of a specific set of discrete responses (each response has a clear beginning and end) 
  2. The performance of each response changes the environment in such a way that it produced conditioned reinforcement for the preceding response and an SD for the next response 
  3. The response in the chain must be completed in the correct order and usually close in time 

14

Behavior Chain with a Limited Hold

  • the chain must be performed correctly and within a certain time limit 
  • accuracy and rate are essential dimensions to limited holds 
  • Ex. entering you SS # when prompted by an automated system--if you take too much time, it records an incomplete and wrong number 

15

Benefits of Chaining 

  • increases independent living skills so that individuals can function more independently in society 
  • increases an individual's current behavioral repertoire 
  • can be combined with other strategies in a treatment package to teach complicated repertoires 

16

Task Analysis 

  • required to implement the chaining procedure 
  • breaking complex skills into smaller, teachable units, the product of which is a series of sequentially ordered steps 
  • individualized to the person according to age, skill level, disability, and prior experience 

17

3 Chaining Steps 

  • Create and Confirm the Task Analysis 
    • to determine the sequence of behaviors that re necessary and sufficient to complete a given task efficiently 
    • identify the SDs and response topographies 
    • the individual must be able to discriminate under which condition a given response should be performed 
    • 3 Methods
      • observe a competent individual perform the task 
      • consult with experts or persons skilled in performing the task 
      • perform the task yourself 
  • Assess Baseline Level of Mastered Steps 
    • Two Methods
      • Single Opportunity Method 
      • Multiple Opportunity Method
  • Decide on Behaving Chaining Method/Procedure

18

Single Opportunity Method

(one of two methods to Assess Baseline Level of Mastered Steps)

  • assesses an individual's ability to perform each behavior in the task analysis in correct sequence 
  • +/- for each step
  • once they score a -, all subsequent steps are recorded incorrect 
  • more conservative of the two methods 
  • provides less information once instruction is initiated
  • reduces the likelihood of learning taking place during the assessment 

19

Multiple Opportunity Method

(one of two methods to Assess Baseline Level of Mastered Steps)

  • evaluates the individual's baseline level of mastery across all behaviors in the task analysis 
  • if a step is performed incorrectly, out of sequence, or the time limit for the step is exceeded, the teacher completes that step for the individual and then prompts the learner to do the next step 
  • each step performed correctly is scored as a correct response even if the previous step was incorrect 
  • provides more information than single opportunity but increase the likelihood that learning will take place during the assessment 

20

4 Behavior Chaining Methods 

  1. Forward Chaining
  2. Total Task Chaining
  3. Backward Chaining 
  4. Backward Chaining with Leap Aheads 

21

Forward Chaining

(one of the 4 Behavior Chaining Methods) 

  • behaviors identified in the task analysis are taught in their naturally occuring order 
  • each step must be mastered in sequential order
  • reinforcement is provided after correctly completing the targeted training step and the steps previous to it 

22

Total Task Chaining

(one of the 4 Behavior Chaining Methods)

(Total Task Presentation; Whole Task Method; Concurrent Chaining) 

  •  a procedure in which the learner completes every step in the TA during every session 
  • technically considered a variation of forward chaining 
  • each step the learner is unable to perform independently is trained until they are able to perform all of the reponses in the correct order 
  • if necessary graduated guidance or physical prompting is used 

23

Backward Chaining

(one of the 4 Behavior Chaining Methods)

  • a procedure in which the teacher compeletes all the initial steps except for the last step which the learner is taught to complete 
  • Advantages
    • when beginning, the first behavior the learner independently performs produces the terminal reinforcement (e.g. a shoe that is tied) 
    • on each trial, the individual comes into contact with the terminal reinforcer for the chain 
  • Disadvantages 
    • the potential passive prompted participation of the learner in earlier steps 
    • can slow down the learning process if the learner has already mastered some steps in the chain 

24

Backward Chaining with Leap Aheads

(one of the 4 Behavior Chaining Methods)

  • same protocol as the backward chain, but not every step in the TA is trained 
  • after a probe, determine the steps that are already in repertoire, and when teaching, you can LEAP AHEAD over that step instead of going in backwards order for every step 

25

Interrupting and Breaking Behavior Chains

(Unchaining; Disrupting a Chain; Unlinking a Chain) 

  • a method designed to lessen behavior by unlinking one element of the chain from the next so that one link no longer serves as a discriminative stimulus for the next link, nor as a conditioned reinforcer for the prior link 
  • can occur with desirable and undesirable behaviors 
  • Inappropriate chains can be broken by determining the initial SD and substituting another SD for an alternate behavior or by extending the chain and building in time delays 
  • BEHAVIOR CHAIN INTERRUPTION STRATEGY (BCIS) 
    • Relies on a learner's ability to perform the critical steps of the chain independently, but the chain is interrupted at a predetermined step so that another behavior can be emitted
    • effective strategy for increasing speech and language abilities
      • ex. learner is completing a TA for making toast but teacher removes the toaster thereby interrupting the chain and making the learner use language to ask for the toaster  

26

Breaking an Inappropriate Chain - 5 Steps

  1. Reexamine the SD and the response 
    • ​​is the original chain of associated evoked reponses arbitrary, based primarily in expert opinion, time and motion studies, and practical effciency?
    • ex. learner was taught to clear dishes. learner scrapes the dishes clean at the table in a clearing bin vs. at the sink
  2. Determine whether similar SDs cue different responses 
    • ​​rearrage the SDs to make the adjustment 
  3. ​Analyze the natural setting to identify relevant and irrelevant SDs
    • ​​training should include helping the learner discriminate between the relevant components of a stimulus from the irrelevant 
    • ex. for clearing dishes, the number of place settings or the location of the meal are irrelevant, however an empty table and the presence of dishes is relevant 
  4. Determine whether SDs in the natural setting differ from training SDs
    • ​some variations cannot be taught during the training ahses, therefore final training trials should also be conducted in the natural setting where the behavior is expected to occur 
  5. Identify the presence of novel stimuli in the setting 
    • ​​the learner should be taught to identify novel stimuli along with the other SDs in the environment 
    • ex. in learning to clear dishes away in a restaurant, the presence of customers may cause the chain to be erformed out of sequence or a coworker may give contradictory instructions 

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5 Factors Affecting the Performance of a Behavior Chain

  1. completeness of the task analysis 
    • ​​elements of the chain are not sequenced appropriately 
    • corresponding SDs are not identified for each response 
  2. length or complexity of the chain 
  3. schedule of reinforcement 
  4. stimulus variation 
    • ​​if possible, introduce all possible variations of an SD
  5. response variation 
    • ​​when stimulus variation occurs, it causes response variation. this may require the retraining of responses 

28

Differential Reinforcement

  • a procedure in which involves two parts
    • Reinforcement contingent on 
      • the occurence of a behavior other than the challenging behavior 
      • challenging behavior occuring at a reduced rate 
    • Withholding Reinforcement (EXT) for the challenging behavior 

29

6 Types of Differential Reinforcement

(HI LOAD) 

  1. Differential Reinforcement of High Rates of Responding (DRH) 
  2. Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI) 
  3. Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL) 
  4. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) 
  5. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) 
  6. Differential Reinforcement of Diminishing Rates of Responding (DRD)

30

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior

DRI 

  • behavior cannot be emitted simultaneously with the challenging behavior 
  • the behavior being differentialy reinforced and the behavior on EXT are mutually exclusive response classes 
  • technically, DRI is a subtype of DRA

31

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

DRA

(Alt-R)

  • reinforce the occurrence of behavior that provides a desireable alternative to the problem behavior; not necessarily behavior incompatible with it 
  • alternative behavior and challenging behavior are part of the same response class
    • the alternative behavior will result in the same consequence as the challenging behavior thus successfully competing with it 

32

Differential Negative Reinforcement of Incompatible/Alternative Behavior

DNRI or DNRA

  • a DRI or DRA in which escape is the reinforcer 
  • Ex. teaching a learner to ask for a break instead of eloping 

33

Guidelines for Using DRI and DRA

  1. Select Incompatible/Alternative behavior 
    • already in the learner's repertoire 
    • requires equal or less effort than the challenging behavior 
    • is being emitted at a frequency that will provide sufficient opportunities 
    • likely to be maintained in the individual's natural enviornment over time 
  2. select reinforcers that are powerful and can be delivered consistently
    • ​​conduct reinforcer assessments to identify the most effective reinforcers 
    • take into account EOs
    • typically the most effective reinforcer will be whatever is maintaining the behavior 
    • the magnitude of the reinforcer is less important than its consistent delivery and control 
  3. reinforce incompatbile/alternative behavior immediately and consistently
    • ​​start with a CRF then thin over time 
  4. withhold reinforcement for the challenging behavior 
  5. combine DRI or DRA with other procedures 

34

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior

(Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding; Omission Training) 

  • a procedure in which reinforcement is contingent on the absence (OMISSION) of the challenging behavior 
  • delievery of reinforcemdnt is determined by how the omission requirement is implemented and scheduled 
  • 4 Types of DROs
    • Interval (Whole Interval DRO) ​
      • Fixed Interval DRO (FI DRO) 
      • Variabile Interval (VI DRO) 
    • Momentary 
      • Fixed Momentary (FM DRO) 
      • Variable Momentary (VM DRO) 
  • Interval DRO is more widely used but Momentary DRO is easier to implement and learners meet with more reinforcement 

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35

Guidelines for Using DRO 

  • Select reinforcers that are powerful and can be delivered consistently 
  • ETHICS WARNING- recognize the limitlations of DRO 
    • other non-targeted challenging behaviors can occur throughout the intervals that you can accidentally reinforce 
      • if this happens, you can shorten the interval OR change the operational definition to include those behaviors 
    • behavior contrast 
  • Set initial DRO intervals that assure frequent reinforcement 
    • ​begin with an interval that is equal to or just under the mean baseline interresponse time (IRT) 
    • Formula:
      • Total Duration of all Baseline Sessions / Total # Behaviors recorded during baseline sessions 
  • do not inadvertently reinforce other undesireable behaviors 
  • gradually increase the DRO interval 
    • 3 Methods
      • constant amout of time 
      • proportionately (e.g. by 5% each time) 
      • session to session change based on the performance of the individual session 
  • extend the application of DRO to other settings and times of day 
  • combine DRO with other procedures 

36

Differential Reinforcement of High Rates of Responding

DRH

  • a schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for emitting behaviors that are at or above a pre established rate 
  • helps increase behaviors that are displayed too infrequently 
  • Ex. increase duration spent studying 
  • Two DRH Subtypes
    • Full Session DRH- reinforcement is delivered at the end of a session if during the entire session the target behavior occured at a rate equal to or above the predetermined criterion 
    • Interval DRH- reinforcement is delivered at the end of each interval during which the target behavior occured at a rate equal to or above the predetermined criterion 

37

Differential Reinforcement of Diminishing Rates of Responding

DRD

  • A schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement when the number of responses in a specified time period is less than or equal to a prescribed limit 
  • helps decrease behavior that is displayed too frequently but not eliminate it 
  • DRD is described in rate/frequency 
  • ex. Use a DRD to decrease the rate of eating 
  • 2 Subtypes of DRD
    • Full Session DRD 
    • Interval DRD 

38

Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding 

DRL 

  • A schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement only if the behavior occurs following a specific period of time during which it did not occur or since the last time it occured 
  • DRL uses Interresponse time (IRT) 
  • by increasing IRT, you are lowering the rate of responding 
  • helps to decrease behavior that occurs too frequently but not eliminate it 
  • Ex. Reinforce learner for waiting at least 10 seconds between bites of food 

39

Guidelines for using DRH/DRD/DRL

  • ETHICS WARNING- recognize the limitations of DRH/DRD/DRL
    • do not use with dangerous behaviors 
    • do not use with behaviors that need immediate decrease
    • these procedures call attention to the behavior, so challenging behavior may receive accidental reinforcement 
  • choose the most appropriate procedure 
    • DRL is the only one that provides reinforcement immediately following a response because it is based on IRT
    • Full Session DRH/DRD produce reinforcement at a lower rate than Interval DRH/DRD
  • Use baseline data to guide the selection of the inital response or IRT limits 
  • gradually thin schedules to achieve the desired final rate of responding 
  • provide feedback to the learner 
    • DRL provides most immediate feedback given that it follows each response that meets IRT criteria 
    • Interval DRH/DRD (as compared to full session) also have high levels of feedback since the time interval is reset if challenging behavior occurs

40

Augmentative Communication Systems

  • sign language, picture exchange (PECS), computerized voice operated communication device 
  • Must assess the learner's current repertoire of verbal skills along with those of their audience 
  • Before choosing, ask:
    • will the audience understand and reinforce the communication?
    • how much effort is required? 

41

Antecedent Interventions

(Antecedent Procedures; Antecedent Control; Antecedent Manipulations) 

  • Two classifications of the functions of antecedent stimuli:
    • Contingency Dependent (Antecedent Control) 
      • the antecedent is dependent on the consequences of behavior for developing evocative and abative effects 
      • stimulus control (SDs) = contingency dependent 
      • strategies that alter the stimulus control 
      • changes in response can be achieved by using within or extra stimulus prompts 
      • Ex. when given 2+2, the student responds 4, not because of the stimulus but because of a past reinforcement history
    • Contingency Independent (Antecedent Intervention)
      • the antecedent is NOT dependent on the consequences of behavior for developing evocative and abative effects 
      • the antecedent itself affects behavior consequence relations 
      • MOs = contingency independent 
      • strategies that alter the MOs by influencing which classes of consequences function effectively as reinforcers 
      • Antecedent interventions create AOs because they decrease the effectiveness of reinforcers that maintain challenging behavior 
      • Ex. sleep deprivation can influence the occurrences of problem behavior in the absence of a history of pairing sleep deprivation with reinforcement or punishment of those behaviors 

42

3 Types of Antecedent Interventions

  1. Noncontingent Reinforcement 
  2. High Probability Request Sequence 
  3. Functional Communication Training 

43

Noncontingent Reinforcement 

  • NCR is an antecedent intervention that uses a response independent (time based) schedule of reinforcement 
  • Provides stimuli with known reinforcing properties on a fixed time or variable time schedule indpendent of behaviors 
  • NCR works because reinforcers that maintain the behavior are available freely and frequently -- the reinforcement enriched enviornment may function as an AO for challenging behavior 
  • 3 NCR Procedures
    • Positive Reinforcement 
    • Negative Reinforcement (e.g. breaks) 
    • Automatic Reinforcement (e.g. sensory feedback) 

44

How to Establish Intervals for NCR

  • Establish the Initial Interval 
    • Formula
      • Total Duration of all baseline sessions / total # of behaviors recorded during baseline sessions 
      • (this is the same formula for IRT used for DRO) 
  • Thin NCR Schedule 
    • 3 Methods
      • Constant time increase
      • proportional time increase
      • session to session time increase- based on individual's behavior in that session 
        • ex. divide the number of episodes of challenging behavior in that session by the duration of the session to get an average that is now established as the new NCR time interval for the next session 

45

Advantages and Disadvantages of NCR 

  • Advantages 
    • easier to implement than other strategies - no monitoring required 
    • creates a positive learning enviornment 
    • a treatment package that includes NCR and EXT may reduce extinction induced response bursts 
    • chance pairings of appropriate behavior and delivery of NCR reinforcers could strengthen and maintain thsoe desireable behaviors 
  • Disadvantages 
    • free access to NCR stimuli may reduce motivation to engage in adaptive behavior 
    • chance pairings of problem behavior and NCR reinforcers 
    • NCR escape procedure can disrupt instruction 
    • does not teach replacement behavior or new behaviors 

46

High-Probability Request Sequence (High-P) 

(Interspered Requests; Pre Task Requests; Behavioral Momentum) 

  • an antecedent intervention that is designed to increase the probablity that a low probability berhavior will occur by presenting stimuli known to promote a high probablity of responding prior to an activity less likely to be performed 
  • must use behaviors already in the learners repertoire and requests must be presented rapidly 
  • High P Requests work because:
    • it has an abative effect- decrease in the current frequency of challenging behavior because it no longer has value for the learner 
    • differential reinforcement is used to reinforce compliance with requests and the challenging behavior is placed on EXT 

47

Functional Communication Training

  • an antecedent intervention developed by Carr and Durand 
  • teaches learner to functionally communicate to compete with problem behaviors evoked by EOs 
  • FCT utilizes EOs strategically and capitalizes on them by teaching the learner replacement behavior for their EOs 
  • FCT is a type of Mand Training 
  • FCT uses differential reinforcement (an application of DRA) 
  • unlike NCR and High P Requests, FCT capitalizes on EOs 
  • the first step in using FCT is to identify the function of the behavior 

48

Steps of Implementing FCT

  • Start with dense schedules of reinforcement 
    • CRF schedule 
  • Start with verbal prompts and then reduce 
  • Thin Schedule (not the same schedule thinning procedure as NCR)

49

Contingency Contracting

(Behavioral Contract

  • a procedure in which a contract is developed collaboratively that stipulates a certain contingency for an individual between a behavior and a reinforcer 
  • the contract itself is a permanent product 
  • contracts are used in treatment packages
  • effective because they involve:
    • delayed reinforcement 
    • rule governance 
    • response prompting--the contract serves as a response prompt to perform the target behavior 
  • can be used for self-mangagment 

50

3 Components of a Contingency Contract

BRD

  • Description of the Behavior
    • who will perform the behavior/receive the reward?
    • what is the behavior?
    • when will it be performed?
    • how well must the behavior be completed?
    • is the behavior already in the individual's repertoire?
    • does the bheavior result in a permanent product
  • Description of the Reward
    • who will assess that the behavior has been completed to specified criteria?
    • what is the reward and when will it be delivered?
    • how much of the reward will the learner receive?
  • Behavior Data 
    • where is data recorded on the behavior?
    • when will the data be reviewed?

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Token Economy

(Token System)

  • A contingency package that includes 3 parts:
    • specified list of responses to reinforce 
    • tokens for exhibiting the specified response 
    • back up reinforcers that can be purchased with the token 
  • effectiveness depends on the power of the back up reinforcer 
  • Response cost can be used 
  • Tokens are GCSRs 
  • often used as a transition between primary and naturally occuring secondary reinforcers 

52

6 Steps to Developing a Token Economy

SICSDF - see if Cade sees double figures

  • Select Tokens 
  • Identify Target Behaviors and Rules 
  • Choose Back Up Reinforcers 
  • Set up Exchange Ratio 
  • Develop procedures for when token requirements are not met 
  • Field Test the Token System 

53

Group Contingencies 

  • a common consequence is contingent on the bheavior of:
    • one member of the group OR
    • part of the group OR
    • all individuals in the group 
  • can save time and be more practical to implement than an individual contingency 
  • takes advantage of the influence of peers--but this can become a disadvantage if peer pressure is too high 
  • 3 Types: DII- "we can DO IT INGLISH"
    • Dependent Group Contingency 
    • Independent Group Contingency 
    • Interdependent Group Contingency 

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Dependent Group Contingency 

(Hero Procedure) 

  • the group's reinforcer is dependent on the bheaivor of ONE INDIVIDUAL or a SMALL GROUP of individuals 
  • the goal is to make a hero out of the person ensuring they will meet the criterion for reinforcement for the entire group 
  • ETHICS WARNING: make sure the person can realistically meet the criterion, otherwise if they don't, the group may behave negatively towards them 
  • Ex. Teacher says, if Sam completes his assignment before the bell rings, evyerone will not have homework for the week 

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Independent Group Contingency 

  • all members of a group are offered a contingency, but only the individuals who meet the contingency earn the reinforcement 
  • ex. anyone who completes their math test before the bell rings will not have homework for the week 

56

Interdependent Group Contingency 

  • in order for the group to earn reinforcement, all of the individuals in a group must meet the crterion of the establsihed contingency 
  • ex. if everyone finishes the test before the bell rings, everyone will have no homework for the week 
  • various methods for implementing:
    • total group meets criterion 
    • group average meets criterion 
    • Good Behavior Game: 
      • the group is divided into two or more teams and a DRL is implemented in an attempt to decrease challenging bheaviors (e.g. talking out loud during class). the group that has the fewest marks wins the game 
    • Good Student Game: 
      • combines the Good Behavior Game with self-monitoring. Designed to be implemented during indpendent seatwork periods when problem behaviors tend to rise 

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Self Management

(Self Control) 

  • employment of behavior analytic interventions to the behavior of yourself 
  • ex. setting an alarm to wake up on time for work 
  • Skinner's Two Response Phenomenon for Self-Control
    • Controlling Response
      • self management behavior; the process to the product 
    • Controlled Response
      • target behavior you desire to alter; the product 

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12 Benefits of Self Management

  1. can influence behaviors not accessible to external change agents (e.g. self-doubt, depression, etc) 
  2. external change agents can miss important instances of behavior that the individual would not 
  3. promotes generalization and maintenance of behavior change 
  4. a small repertoire of self management skills can control many behaviors 
  5. people with diverse abilities can learn self management 
  6. some people perform better under self selected tasks and criteria 
  7. people with good self management skills contribute to more efficient and effective group environments 
  8. teaching students to use self management provides meaningful practice for other areas of school curriculum 
  9. ultimate goal of education 
  10. benefits society 
  11. helps a person feel free 
  12. just feels good 

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6 Antecedent Based Self Management Tactics

(Enviornmental Planning; Stituational Inducement)  

MPPRLD- Many People Performing Really Loud Drumming

  1. Manipulating MOs
    • ​ex. eating a meal (the controlling behavior) before going grocery shopping as an AO that decreases the momentary value of ready to eat foods and results in buying fewer items at the grocery store (the controlled behavior)
  2. Providing Response Prompts 
    • ​creating stimuli (visual, auditory, etc) that later function as extra cues and reminders for desired behavior 
    • generic response prompts are the same object being used to remind someone of something, such as putting a rubber band on your wrist
    • others can be used to provide response prompts (e.g. telling Mama to remind you to pay a bill) 
  3. Performing Initial Steps of a Behavior Chain 
    • ​​behaving in a manner that ensures being confronted later with an SD that reliably evokes the target behavior 
    • performing part of a behavioral chain at one point in time, a person has changed their enviornment with an SD that will evoke the next response in the chain and will lead to the completion of the task 
    • ex. if you want to remember to bring your umbrella, hang it on the front door 
    • ex. if you want to remember to vaccuum, take out the vaccuum and plug it in and leave it in the middle of the room 
  4. Removing Materials Required for an Undesired Behavior 
    • ​​ex. if you want to restrict calories, remove all the junk food from the house 
  5. Limiting Undesired Behavior to Restricted Stimulus Conditions 
    • ​decrease frequency of an undesired behavior by limiting the setting under which the person engages in the behavior 
    • ex. you can only smoke if you take a walk down to the end of the block away from the house 
  6. Dedicating a Specific Environment for a Behavior 
    • ​​reserve or create an enviornment where the person will only engage in that behavior 
    • ex. studying only at your desk
    • ex. only sleeping in your bed 

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Self-Monitoring

(Self Recording; Self Observation) 

  • procedure in which a person observes their own behavior systematically and records occurrence or non occurrence of behavior 
  • effective due to reactive effects 
  • helpful for increasing on task behaviors and decreasing undesireable behavior (e.g. number of unhealthy foods consumed or smoking) 
  • difficult to isolate self-monitoring as a procedure as it usually entails other contingencies and is used as part of a treatment package 

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Self Evaluation 

(Self Assessment) 

a comparison of an individual's performance by themselves with a predetermined criterion 

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Guidelines for Self Monitoring

  • provide materials that make self monitoring easy 
    • many ways to record the behavior 
  • provide supplementary prompts 
    • stimuli that prompt the person to self record 
  • self monitor the most important dimension of the bheavior that allows the most efficient and significant progress toward the goal 
  • self monitor early and often 
    • act of self minitoring should not disrupt the target behavior 
    • should occur more often at the beginning of the behavior change program 
  • Reinforce accurate self monitoring 

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Self Administered Consequences 

  • providing consequences for self after reviewing self monitoring data 
  • choose consequces that are small and easy to attain 
  • eliminate bootleg reinforcement - may help to have another individual deliver your consequences 

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4 Other Self Management Techniques

SHSM- Self Help Section Missing

  1. Self Instruction - self generated verbal responses (covert or overt) that function as response prompts for a desired bheavior--often used to guide a person through a behavior chain 
  2. Habit Reversal - a multi component treatment package for reducing unwanted habits by identifying events that precede a target behavior and engaging in competing responses (do something else) 
  3. Self Directed Systematic Desensitization - substituting one bheaivor for unwanted bheavior by developing a hierarchy of situations from the least to most fearful and graduallye xposing yourself to each situation in the hierarchy 
  4. Massed Practice - forcing yourself to repeatedly perform the undesired behavior (ETHICS WARNING- can be dangerous) 

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Prompts

  • supplementary antecedent stimuli that are introduced to evoke a disired response when the discriminative stimulus is evident 
  • a functional but irrelevant SD such as a hing or reminder designated to set the occasion for a desires response 
  • used before or during a response in the acquisition phase of learning novel responses 
  • 3 steps for effectively using:
    • present antecedent stimulus 
    • prompt the correct behavior 
    • reinforce the correct behavior whether prompted or not 
  • 2 types of prompts
    • response prompts 
    • stimulus prompts 

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Response Prompts

  • response prompts act on the response itself--not the antecedent stimuli 
  • 3 forms
    • verbal (vocal and non vocal) 
    • modeling 
    • physical prompting 

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Stimulus Prompts

  • stimulus prompts act on the atencedent stimuli--not the response 
  • some forms
    • movement (touch, point to, tap) 
    • position (one item is closer to the learner than the rest) 
    • redundancy (redundancy cue)- dimensions of the stimulus are paired with the correct response 

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4 Ways to Remove Response Prompts 

MLGD- My Little Good Dog

  • Most to Least Prompting (Maximum to Minimum Prompting) 
    • beginning witha  prompt known to reliably evoke the behavior and gradually proceeding to less intrusive prompts 
  • Least to Most Prompting (Maximum to Minimum Prompting) 
    • begin with minimal cues that systematically and gradually increase in prompt hierarchy level until the resulting in the correct response 
    • proceed to more intrusive prompts only if the learner needs it ​
  • Graduated Guidance 
    • utilizing the minimal amount of physical prompting required to occasion the correct response and then gradually reducing physical prompts to just shadowing 
  • Delayed Prompting (Time Delayed Prompting; Delayed Cuing; Progressive Delay) 
    • inserting time delays between the SD and the prompt in order to systematically eliminate prompts until the learner is responding prior to the prompt 
      • Fixed Delayed Prompting (Constant Delayed Prompting) 
      • Progressive Delayed Prompting (Graduated Delayed Prompting) 
        • the time between the SD and the prompt gradually increases 

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2 Ways to Remove Stimulus Prompts

FS

  • Fading (Stimulus Fading
    • the systematic and gradual removal of intrusive prompts until the control transfers to the natural stimulus (SD
    • fading is maximal to minimal 
    • Ex. write the word "blue" in blue ink and then fade the shade until it reaches black 
  • Stimulus Shape Transformations (Stimulus Shaping) 
    • the systematic and gradual transformation of the physica shape of the stimulus 
    • the sape is gradually altered to become the natural SD over time 

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Errorless Learning

  • instructional methods specficially designed to prevent or substantially minimize any learner errors that are used to teach particular discrimination 
  • most to least prompting and fading methods are used 
  • remove the prompts very gradually 
  • sequences of artificial discriminative stimuli are arranged carefully and faded slowly and systematically so that control evetually shifts to the natural stimuli identified ultimately to evoke the response 
  • Advantages
    • effective for youg children, learners with developmental disabilities, and learners with brain injuries 
    • research shows that once a person has made an error, it leads to more errors 
  • Disadvantages 
    • costly in terms of time money and effort 
    • errors are likely to occur at some point, so it is also important to teach learners to persist despite errors 

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5 ABA Instructional/Educational Methodologies 

  1. Discrete Trial Training (Restricted Operant; Controlled Operant; DTT)
  2. Incidental Teaching (In-Situ Training; Naturalistic Teaching; Non-Intensive Teaching) 
  3. Direct Instruction 
  4. Precision Teaching 
  5. Personalized System of Instruction (The Keller Plan) 

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Discrete Trial Training

(Restricted Operant; Controlled Operant; DTT)

(one of the 5 ABA Instructional/Educational Methodologies) 

  • Founded by Lovaas in 1960 
  • discrete trial- a single cycle of behqviorally based and ystematic instructional routine with 5 componenets:
    • SD - present the SD
    • Prompt - provide a temporary prompt if necessary
    • Response - the individual displays the target response
    • Reinforcement - deliver the reinforcement
    • Inter Trial Interval - the brief pause between consecutive trials
  • ​4 Ways to Introduce Targets:
    • Mass Trial
      • presenation of a single SD for new material on acquisition
      • prompts are normally included at the beginning 
      • lerarners should recieve 80% accuracy or more in the mass trial phase with a netural distracter before proceeding to the next phases 
    • Block Trial
      • giving a block of one SD followed by a block of another SD 
      • the target changes one time during the series of trials (the switch) 
    • Expanded Trial
      • adding or inserting distracters between the SDs that are currently on acquistion 
      • use mastered distracters
    • Random Rotation 
      • presenting any random SD within a set of mastered items  ​

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Why DTT is called "discrete"

  • the trial is called "discrete" because it has a clear beginning and ending 
  • a discrete trial is controlled by an opportunity to respond--which is why it's aka is restricted or controlled operant 
  • discrete trial training teaches discriminated operants -- the response is correct only when the particular SD is present 
    • ex. learner is told they will earn reinforcement only when they engage in block building and not a different activity. block building becomes the SD that reinforcement is available 
  • Free operant
    • not discrete 
    • a free operant is a response class unlimited by constraints or prompts so that it may be freely and repeatedly emitted
    • No SD is required for a response to be emitted 
    • Ex. free play with toys 

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Incidental Teaching

(In-Situ Training; Naturalistic Teaching; Non-Intensive Teaching) 

(one of the 5 ABA Instructional/Educational Methodologies) 

  • embedding learning opportunities in ongoing everyday activities with a focus on the child's interest and initiations (McGee, Daly, and Jacobs, 1994) 
  • Six Guiding Principles
    • Natural Environment - incidental teaching is conducted in the settings that will maintain the newly acquired verbal skills 
    • Timing- conducted all day naturally and by all parties 
    • Training Loosley- teacher takes advantage of reinforcers selected by the client and using various items to teach skills 
    • Indiscriminable Contingencies- does not use the overt contingencies that DTT uses 
    • Facilitates Generalization- incidental teaching prompotes the most generalization out of all the teaching methods because it loosely trains from the start 
    • Language Use/Verbal Skills- uses MOs to build mands 

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Direct Instruction 

(one of the 5 ABA Instructional/Educational Methodologies) 

  • founded by Engelmann 
  • a published ABA instructional methodology that involves:
    • a carefully designed curriculum 
      • creating and teaching task analyses for each skill starting with basics and moving to more complex
    • teaching in small groups 
      • students are assessed and placed into small groups to help the efficiency of learning
    • fast paced teaching - designed to cover more material 
    • scripts 
      • provides emprically validated ways to explain the directions of each lesson, examples, and exact wording to use 
    • signals and chroal responding 
      • teachers give the students a signal which tells them when to participate during a lesson. After the signal, students chorally respond 
        • 3 benefits of choral responding
          • more frequent opportunites to respond to material than in a traditional classroom 
          • keeps students focused on the material as they will never know when they will be asked to chorally respond 
          • allows the teacher to check on each student's responses every time a question is posed 
    • applying specific techniques for correcting and preventing errors 
      • includes graphing errors, supplying the correct answer in discrimination tasks, prompting learners to use a multistep strategy, etc 
  • Project Follow Through- large scale longitudinal study that compared educational methodologies on teaching economically disadvantaged students-- DI won 

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Precision Teaching

  • founded by Ogden Lindsley 
  • a formal individualized ABA instructional method that empahsizes rate building (fluency), charting of performance (celeration charting), and designing and implementing teaching that reinforces the emission of each specific behavior under all conditions in which it is expectd dto occur 
  • 4 Guiding Principles
    • The student is always right- if the student is not doing well, the teacher is responsible for making the necessary changes 
    • focus on directly observable behavior 
    • measure of performance is rate/frequency--NOT percent correct 
      • fluency- accuracy plus speed
      • tool skills- basic, foundational components of more complex skills 
      • continuous direct measurement (as opposed to testing at the conclusion of a chapter in traditional education) 
    • uses Standard Celeration Chart to chart academic and social behaviors 

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Personalized System of Instruction 

(one of the 5 ABA Instructional/Educational Methodologies) 

(The Keller Plan) 

  • founded by Keller in 1963
  • PSI is an ABA instructional methodology characterized by:
    • Personalized/Self Pacing- students proceed with learning at their own pace, resulting in no punishment for those that proeed at a slower pace 
    • Unit Mastery- must achieve 90% mastery before moving on to other content 
    • Written Materials- no oral lectures provided 
    • Proctors- students that are further along in the program that grade tests and provide feedback to other students 
    • lectures are only used as reinforcement when the learner meets criterion