A new health club is planning to install ultraviolet (UV) tanning equipment. The equipment uses UV sources with a higher intensity than normal sunlight to accelerate tanning.
(a) Identify effects that could result from exposure to UV radiation. (4)
(b) Outline control measures that could be put in place for workers and customers for the safe operation of this equipment at the health club. (12)
(c) Identify TWO other workplaces where sources of UV radiation are found AND identify how exposure to UV radiation occurs in EACH workplace. (4)
- Skin cancer (melanoma and nonmelanoma)
- Premature aging and other skin damage.
- Cataracts and other eye damage.
- Immune system suppression
- information should have been received from the manufacturer or supplier on the correct operation of the UV tanning equipment, and the owner, managers and employees should familiarise themselves with it, and be following it. This information should include the correct lamps to use and the maintenance regime.
- have trained staff present while customers are using UV tanning equipment.
- provide ongoing health and safety training for staff to make sure they can correctly run the equipment, provide customers with information about the risks and assist as required.
- have effective procedures in place to provide immediate assistance to customers using UV tanning equipment.
- Make sure that children (under 18 years of age) accompanying adults, who are using UV tanning equipment, are not exposed to UV radiation.
- If more than one piece of equipment is operated in the same room, screening should be used between the units.
- make sure the equipment is cleaned and sanitised between customers to ensure no cosmetics, deodorants or accelerants are in the tanning bed which would intensify the UV.
- When replacing UV tubes, it should be ensured the right type are fitted and reassess the exposure requirements of your customers when subsequently using the equipment. The BS EN standard on manufacturing UV tanning equipment will provide more information.
- Make sure staff are aware of the risks to themselves from working with UV tanning equipment and how to reduce or avoid these risks.
- provide adequate eye protection (goggles) for customers and staff, when maintaining equipment.
- When carrying out a risk assessment, consider the Sunbeds (Regulation) Act 2010, which makes it illegal for under-18s to use commercial UV tanning equipment.
- locating workers away from the tanning equipment,
- safety controls on the equipment for instance preventing them from trapping customers inside the tanning machine.
- regular maintenance of equipment by changing tubes, calibrating the timer, and PAT testing
- Limiting the time customers may use the tanning beds in order to prevent over-exposure.
- Setting up signage not to use cosmetics, deodorants or accelerants while tanning.
- To control the risk of exposure to UV radiation to customers, by providing them with the information on posters.
(c) Electric Welding Arcs: Welding arcs can exceed the UV guidelines in seconds within a few meters of the arc. Besides workers, bystanders and passers-by are often overexposed to UV from the arcs.
Black Lights - Low-power UV-A lamps used in non-destructive testing (NDT), insect control, and entertainment
In a chemical process, workers use a mixture that contains two organic
liquids, MMA and PPO. Table 1 below shows the average personal
exposure levels to the organic liquids for one worker measured over an
8-hour day and Table 2 shows the exposure limits for the two
components (MMA and PPO).
(a) Substances in a mixture may interact in different ways to cause
Outline what is meant by independent, additive and synergistic
(b) Using the information in Table 1, calculate the 8-hour Time-
Weighted Average (TWA) exposure of the worker to BOTH MMA
AND PPO. (8)
Your answer should include detailed working to show you
understand how the exposure is determined.
(c) Using relevant information from Tables 1 and 2, explain what
actions might be required by the employer to control exposure.
Assume that the components have independent toxic action. (8)
(a) Independent interaction means the action is on different organs or tissues (or different mechanism)
Additive interaction means the effect of two chemicals is equal to the sum of the effect of the two chemicals taken separately. This is usually due to the two chemicals acting on the body via same or similar mechanism.
Synergistic interaction means that the effect of two chemicals taken together is greater than the sum of their separate effect at the same doses.
(c) neither the MMA nor the PPO time weighted average concentrations exceeded their respective exposure limits (long-term or short-term).
MMA’s long term exposure limit is shown as 50 and short-term exposure limit is shown as 100 where the employees TWA as calculated is 23.44ppm which is well within range.
With PPO’s long term exposure limit shown as 200 and short-term exposure limit shown as 250 and the employees TWA as calculated is 131.25ppm which is also well within range.
Table 1 Indicates that other actions may still be needed. For example, more detailed/extensive measurements to confirm the result was true for other areas and employees. The assumption of independent action may also be invalid, so may require investigation. Other components are also mentioned (in the second step) and these might need to be measured. In any case, routine periodic monitoring should be undertaken going forward.
In a chemical process, workers use a mixture composed of several liquid substances. One of the components, designated DTJH, is classified as a sensitizer under the GHS system. Table 1 below shows the average personal exposure levels to DTJH for one worker measured over an 8-hour day and Table 2 shows the exposure limits for DTJH.
(a) Outline the process of hazard classification under the GHS system. (2)
(b) Outline what is meant by ‘sensitiser’ under the GHS system. (4)
(c) Using the information in Table 1, calculate the 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure of the worker to DTJH. (6)
Your answer should include detailed working to show that you understand how the exposure is determined.
(d) Using relevant information from Tables 1 and 2, explain what actions might be required by the employer to control exposure. (8)
(a) Hazard classification under the GHS system involves a two-step process. Firstly, relevant hazard data is identified and reviewed. This data is either already available or from further tests that are commissioned. In both cases, it is necessary to use data from standard test methods. This data is then compared to GHS classification criteria for the various hazard categories.
(b) A sensitiser causes an allergic response - which can be either skin or respiratory. Sensitisation occurs in two phases, the initial contact with the sensitiser may produce only mild effects but subsequent exposure of even small amounts may produce an extreme reaction.
(d) The calculated value is below the LTEL (Long term exposure limit) but very close to it. It is quite likely that on other days or for other workers, the value may be exceeded, so more
detailed measurements should be carried out. The STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) is exceeded, and some action is needed during the measuring stage.
Since this involves a sensitiser where even small amounts could cause an allergic reaction, the employer should try to reduce exposure to as low as possible (regardless of the LTEL/STEL). Control options that could be used are:
- substituting the DTJH with another chemical not classified as a sensitizer.
- Changing the process on how the chemicals are mixed in order to limit exposure to employees.
(a) Outline how the use of drugs or alcohol can adversely affect a
worker’s fitness to work. (5)
(b) Outline circumstances when drug and alcohol testing should be
used at work. (4)
(c) Outline how the use of drugs or alcohol problems at work can be
managed effectively. (7)
(d) Identify FOUR disciplines or agencies that may assist in assessing
or managing the use of drugs or alcohol at work. (4)
- as increased absenteeism,
- loss of work performance.
- Tardiness/sleeping on the job
- Increased likelihood of having trouble with co-workers/supervisors or tasks
b) The occasions when an employer might consider using drugs and alcohol testing or screening might be:
- When required to do so by statute law (e.g. law governing the operation of trains and railways).
- On suspicion of a problem either because of employee behaviour or because of information that has been supplied by other concerned persons (anonymous tip-offs are common in these circumstances).
- Where the work is safety critical and, therefore, impairment of workers might result in risk to themselves, others and the public (e.g. a crane operator).
- After an event, where post incident investigation has shown that drug and alcohol misuse was a significant causative factor.
- As a part of an individual’s rehabilitation into the workplace, when they are known to have had a problem with misuse and have agreed to screening as an alternative to dismissal
- consideration of a drugs/alcohol policy
- temporary transfer to an alternative job (not safety critical) and
- The role of the Human Resources, or Employee Relations office in dealing with cases of substance abuse is to advise management of appropriate adverse, disciplinary, or other administrative actions which may be taken. They also advise employees of their rights and the procedures in such cases.
- Employee Assistance Programs (EAP) deal with all kinds of problems and provide short-term counselling, assessment, and referral of employees with alcohol and drug abuse problems
- giving them time off work to get help for their addiction, During the period that the employee is away from work receiving treatment, he or she will usually be carried in some type of approved leave status. In most cases, it would be appropriate for the employee to be carried on any available sick leave. Otherwise, annual leave or leave without pay would be appropriate.
- When the employee has completed any treatment requiring extended absence and is ready to return to work, it is a good practice to have a back-to-work conference. The conference should be attended by you as the supervisor, the employee, the EAP counsellor, a staff member from the treatment program, other appropriate personnel from human resources, and the employee’s representative if one has been elected.
- After the employee’s return to duty, there will be some type of follow-up care such as a 12-Step program or other group meetings, therapy, EAP sessions, or any combination of the foregoing. These sessions should cause only minimal disruption to the work schedule. The EAP counsellor can explain the importance of the follow-up program to the employee’s continued sobriety.
- Human Resources
- accredited laboratories
- specialist alcohol advisory services.
- Occupational Health Service
A parcel sorting depot is experiencing a high number of manual handling related injuries. The employees handle a large number of different parcels and packages each day.
(a) Identify the different types of hazard that may be inherent in the loads being handled. (6)
(b) In order to reduce the level of manual handling required, the employer has decided to invest in a range of non-powered handling devices, (trolleys, trucks etc). Describe the steps that should be taken when selecting such devices and introducing their use. (10)
(c) Outline a range of additional control measures that could be introduced to minimise the risks associated with manual handling. (4)
(a),the different types of hazard include:
- weight of load and the fact that the weights would be unknown;
- parcels may be difficult to grasp, as they are likely to be smooth with no handholds with unstable contents which are likely to move or with the centre of gravity not in the centre of the parcel;
- awkward shapes would be common or
- parcels that are too large for the handler to see over;
- sharp edges or corners
- and the possibility that the contents might spill out, some of which could be hazardous.
(b) The selection of the handling devices requires:
- consultation with the employees both in the selection and the trials.
- seeking advice from suppliers on suitability.
- requesting equipment on a trial basis to check whether it solves the problem without creating new ones;
- observing the equipment in use at other organisations;
- considering the requirements for maintenance;
- ensuring the proposed use will be within the safe working load of the device;
- ensuring there is sufficient room to manoeuvre;
- ensuring the suitability of the device in the light of the stability and surface of the terrain on which it was to be used;
- checking that braking controls are adequate and that the handle height was adjustable between waist and shoulder; and that the design of the equipment was such as to prevent parcels from falling off.
As far as introducing the use of the devices, this would require:
- consideration of operator training,
- storage when not in use,
- maintenance arrangements and a procedure for reporting defects.
- and ensuring there are enough devices available which are readily accessible.
(c) additional control measures that might be considered are:
- changing the workplace layout to reduce carrying distances, twisting, and stooping and avoiding lifting from floor level or above shoulder height.
- varying the work and its duration and pace.
- marking up loads with information such as the weight and the heavy end;
- introducing mechanical assistance such as conveyors or fork lift trucks;
- using team lifting where appropriate and providing training in manual handling.
Farmers, veterinary workers and sheep shearers often need to manually handle live animals such as sheep, pigs or goats as part of their work. In these situations the load is the live animal.
(a) Describe factors associated with the load that increase the risk
of these manual handling activities. (4)
(b) Outline a range of other factors that should be considered when
carrying out manual handling risk assessments in these
(c) Outline practical control measures that could be used in these
situations to help reduce the risk of a manual handling injury. (10)
- the animal can be heavy,
- awkward to grip and has unpredictable movement.
- the issue of the handler being injured from horns/teeth/tusks/hooves.
- animal breed and state also have a bearing on aggressive tendency, as does the mood of the animal.
Assessing who will be carrying out the task. Different people have different capabilities, training, physical strength, and health conditions – and all play a role in assessing the risk to the health of the individual or team carrying out the task. assessing their existing manual handling skills, previous manual handling training, experience and handling of these specific animals. Consideration whether the individual requires additional help and support to complete the task.
looking at the manual handling task itself and what is involved, such as the lifting, pushing, pulling, carrying, and lowering the animals(Load). assess how carrying out the task will affect the health and safety of the individual performing it, as well as others who could be affected.
The key is to identify the type and range of actions and movements involved, such as strenuous or repetitive movements, and consider whether they could result in any injuries. identify alternative ways for the load to be moved that reduce the risk of injury.
Manual handling a load through different environments involve changes in flooring, access ramps and corridors, which means assessing the entire environment is essential to minimise risk. This involves examining how the environment, such as flooring, lighting, ventilation, and humidity can affect the task. From potential trip hazards to access to light or shutter switches, it’s vital the entire route is planned so you can safely navigate the environment.
- need for specialist skills training in animal handling techniques and awareness of animal behaviour.
- also the need for handlers to work in pairs or part of a small team.
- devices for animal handling including barricades, fixtures, crates,
- lifting aids to assist in the lifting of the animals such as a animal lifting harness.
- the need for appropriate PPE, such as gloves, protective boots and snugly fitting clothing.
- Selection of breeds on the basis of docility.
- sedating the animal before handling.
- Tranquilizers for if an animal does get aggresive
a) Construction workers are at risk of developing hand-arm
vibration syndrome (HAVS).
(i) Outline factors that may increase this risk. (5)
(ii) Outline the steps of a health surveillance program for
workers who are exposed to hand-arm vibration. (5)
(b) A construction worker has been off work for a period of time
suffering from HAVS and the employer’s occupational health
department wants to find out if they are fit to return to work.
(i) Outline the way in which symptom severity of HAVS is
classified using the Stockholm scale. (5)
(ii) Outline options that the occupational health department
can suggest to the employer if the occupational health
doctor decides that the worker cannot return to the work
that exposes them to vibration. (5)
- The properties of the tool itself (size, weight, method of propulsion, and drive mechanism) will have an effect on vibration magnitude
- The material worked upon (hardness, roughness, size)
- The task being undertaken (cutting, drilling, grinding).
- and lack of equipment maintenance or condition of the equipment
- Cold working conditions
- poor training and holding the tools too tightly as well as the Orientation of the hand and arm
- smoking can be a factor in reduction of blood flow and therefore a factor in inducing HAVS.
(ii) A simple approach to health surveillance involves working through a number of stages. Briefly, this ‘tiered’ system works as follows:
Tier 1 is a short questionnaire (initial screening questionnaire) used as a first check for people moving into jobs involving exposure to vibration and medical history can also be used as an initial baseline assessment. The replies to the questionnaire will indicate whether they need to be referred to Tier 3 for a HAVS health assessment.
Tier 2 is a short questionnaire (annual screening questionnaire) that you can issue once a year to employees exposed to vibration risks to check whether they need to be referred to Tier 3 for a HAVS health assessment.
Tier 3 involves a HAVS health assessment by a qualified person (eg an occupational health nurse). Where grip strength, vascular and neurological function will be assessed. If the assessment shows that the employee has HAVS, the employee Tier 4 will apply.
Tier 4 involves a formal diagnosis and is carried out by a doctor qualified in occupational health. The doctor will advise you on the employee’s fitness for work.
Tier 5 is optional and involves the referral of the employee for certain tests for HAVS.
The results may help the doctor assess fitness for work.
(b)(i) The severity of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is usually graded according to the Stockholm workshop scales.
There is a vascular tier and Sensory-neural stages.
The Vascular tier works in stages from 0 to 4. With stage 0 being the lowest grade with no attacks, Stage 1 is having Occasional attacks on the tips of one or more fingers and is graded as Mild, Stage 2 is graded at Moderate with Occasional attacks affecting distal and middle phalanges (Rarely proximal) of one or more fingers. Stage 3 is graded as severe with frequent attacks – all phalanges, most fingers. And Stage 4 being the highest grade setting at Very severe which is the same as stage 3, but with trophic skin changes on tips (rare)
The Sensory-neural stages work from stage 0SN to 3SN with stage 0SN being the lowest grade where the symptoms are Exposed to vibration – no symptoms, 1SN is the next stage up with symptoms Intermittent numbness, +/- tingling, Stage 2SN is the 2nd highest stage with symptoms Intermittent or persistent numbness, reduced sensory perception and the highest stage 3SN has symptoms Intermittent or persistent numbness, reduced tactile discrimination and/or manipulative dexterity
- recommending a return to normal duties (if this involves no vibration exposure)
- Possibly having the employee change job positions to another department or another job scope where there is no vibration present.
- adapting the existing job, if possible, to remove vibration exposure,
- finally recommending termination of employment on medical grounds