Secularisation Flashcards Preview

Beliefs > Secularisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Secularisation Deck (11):

Crockett and Wilson

Crockett 1998- in 1851 40% or more of adult population of Britain attended church on Sundays- golden age of religiousity
Wilson 1966 argues western societies undergoing long term secularisation process where religious beliefs practises and institutions lose social significance


Church attendance

Only about 6% adult attended sunday church in 2005
Half of 1960
Sunday school/ church wedding and baptism all decreasing
Religion membership decline 1983 adults with no religion risen from a third to half and christian identifiers fallen by a third
Small organisations grown


Religious institutions today

Bruce 2002 influence as social institution is declining
It once effected every aspect of life
Now just the private sphere of individual
State taken many functions it used to perform e.g. Schooling
Clergy number 45000 in 1900
to 34000 in 2000
While population increEd i. Sir


Explanations for sec

Weber 1905
Rational thinking replaces religious ones
- 16th century protestant reformation undermined religion view of middle ages replacing it with modern rational outlook
- medieval catholic worldview saw world as enchanted garden in which God changed events



Protestant reformation- God existing above and outside world not intervening

Reason and science understand how world works


Structural differentiation

Parsons 1951
Religion dominated pre indust but indust means its smaller

Bruce- religion largely personal choice now

Church and state seperate in midern society, so lost power


Social and cultural diversity

Wilson argues
In pre indust shared religious rituals and values
Industrialisation destroys these stable communities so destroys religion base

Bruce- indust create impersonal loose knit centres with diversity undermining believability in religion
Rise of individualism


Religious diversity

Berger 1969
Since protestant reformation different versions of truth
Undermines religion plausibility structure
- eroding certainty


Cultural defence and transition
Bruce/ contradict secularisation

Defence- religion provides a focus for the defence of national or ethnic group identity like catholicism in poland before the fall of communism
Transition- sense of community living in different culture


USA secularisation

1962 45% Americans attended Sunday church
- expression of american way of life
- more supeficial wilson argues


Bruce supports that Us becoming secular

Declining church attendance
Says 40% attendance since 1940 but may be exaggerated
- hadaway et al 1993 found Ohio attendance level 83% higher than researchers counted going into church

Secularisation from within
Religion become psychologised form of therapy
Stayed popular for seeking personal imporvement in the world instead of salvation in heaven

Religious diversity and relativism
Bruce identifies practical relativism among American Christians - accepting others entitled to hold beliefs different to ones own
Lynd and lynd- 1929_ 1924 94% churchgoing young agreed christianity is one true religion 1977- 41% agreed
Absolutism eroded
Many views