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Flashcards in Sedimentary system Deck (36)
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1

Why is sedimentology important?

-earth history
-origins of life
-mineral and fuel resources
-Geohazards
-sedimentary processes
-Impacts of climate change

2

What is a rock?

Any mass of mineral matter weather consolidated or not which forms part of the earths crust

3

What is a mineral?

A structurally homogeneous solid of definite chemical composition, formed by the inorganic processes of nature

4

What is a crystal?

A 3D body with symmetrical bounding surfaces, constant angular relationships, arising from the inherit regular atomic structure of the substance.

5

Examples of physical weathering? (4)

-Freeze thaw
-Differential expansion of minerals as they heat in the sun
-action of plant roots and micro-organisms
-Abrasion (wind, wave etc)

6

Examples of natural zones of weakness: (2)

-Jointing
-Bedding planes

7

What controls a rocks resistance to weathering in relation to it's chemistry? (2)

-atomic structure
-chemical stability

8

What is an ION?

When atoms or molecules gain or loose an electron

9

What is the formula for the ions halite go to when disolved in water?

NaCl= Na+ +Cl-

10

What is an ANION?

Atom/molecule gains an electron and so becomes negatively charged i.e Cl-

11

What is a CATION?

Atom/molecule looses an electron and so becomes positively charged i.e Na+

12

CaCO3+H2O+CO2 ->

Ca2+ +2HCO3-

13

Calcium carbonate +water + Carbon dioxide

Calcium Cation + bicarbonate anion

14

State the order in witch the minerals in granite weather

1) biotite mica
2) Plagioclase f'spa (white)
3) Orthoclase f'spa (pink)
4)Quartz

15

What minerals are present in Arkose?

Othoclase feldspar and Quartz

16

What is there no Plagioclase feldspar in Arkose?

-It reacts with acid in rain water
-some atoms are dissolved and turned to clay
-fine clay particles are washed away large quartz and orthoclase are left behind

17

What is the relationship between the level a climate supports life and chemical weathering?

the more a climate supports live the higher the weathering

18

What climate would you expect a)fast b) slow chemical weathering?

a) warm and humid b) cold and dry

19

what is mass wasting?

Mass wasting is the down slope movement of a mass of sediment and/or rock due mainly to the force of gravity


20

Mass movement of consolidated rock:

-Rock fall
-Rock slide
-Rock avalanche

21

Mass movement of unconsolidated material:

-Creep
-Slump
-Debris slide
-Debris avalanche
-Earthflow
-mudflow
-solifluction
-Debris flow

22

What is a rock slide?

Mass of rock slides down as one unit

23

What is Rock avalanche? Where do these happen?

Rocks flow downhill, Himalayas

24

What is creep?

Slow movement of soil or other debris (1-10mm/year)
-Cause issues interperating dip of rocks

25

What is slump?

Slow slide of unconsolidated material mooving as an unit

26

what is a mudflow?

Mud flows move very fast and contain large amounts of water

27

what is debris flow?

Contain material coarser than sand and move at afew tens of km/hour

28

What makes a slope a) stable b) unsatble?

a) Driving force < /=Resting force
b) driving force > resting force

29

What are the driving forces of a slope?

Shear stress: Steepness of slope, mass of material

30

What are the resisting fores of a slope?

Slope material, water content