Flashcards in Self-Determination Deck (88):
Describe Kashmir before the British invasion.
Kashmiri people lived in a defined territory in the NW Himalayan mountains and speak Kashmiri and the people think of them as a distinct cultural group
British, Indian, and Pakistani leaders agreed that the Kashmiri people should have the right to decide whether to join India or Pakistan.
The UN Security Council decided that Kashmiris should vote on the issue in a plebiscite (a vote by which the people of an entire country or district express an opinion for or against a proposal especially on a choice of government or ruler.)
Kashmiri people's wishes were not considered in the decision to hold a plebiscite
In the meantime (1948), India invaded Kashmir and took control of majority of their traditional land and Kashmir’s plebiscite was never held and fighting between India and Pakistan have continued on their land ever since
Part of Kashmir controlled by India includes twice as many Kashmiris as the section controlled by Pakistan and Kashmiris have resisted Indian control and violent conflicts have occurred over the decades
the Association of Parents of Disappeared Persons estimated that 10,000 Kashmiris have “disappeared” (captured by Indian forces and never seen again)
What is self-determination defined by the First Nations?
Right of people to freely:
- Determine their political status and pursue their economic, social, and cultural development
- Dispose of and benefit from their wealth and natural resources
-“Self-determination includes governance, so Indigenous people are entitled to choose their own forms of government, within existing states.”
-Many First Nations peoples believe that self-determination must include changing the balance of political and economic power between First Nations and the Canadian government and they have proposed new laws and institutions to bring about these changes.
How did Canada support First Nations economy in 2005?
- 2005: Canadian govt passed law to support institutions that help FN economically
- FN created schools that taught youth in native language and taught traditional values and knowledge
Creation of Nunavut
-Creation of Nunavut in 1999 which allowed Inuits to share in decisions about how their land and its resources are managed and used through the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (20% of Canada’s land mass)
-Decisions made by consensus
Metis Self-Determination: 1932
Metis Association was formed
Metis Self-Determination: 1938
Metis Population Betterment Act (fist and only legislated land base for Metis people in Canada)
Metis Self-Determination: 1982
Metis people in Canada pressed harder to win outright ownership of the settlement lands, and pursuit of own economic, social, and cultural policies.
Metis Self-Determination: 1990
Alberta gave 500,000 hectares to Metis settlements
Metis Self-Determination: 2005
Metis National Council appeared before the UN Human Rights Committee and demanded more rights to SD
Metis Self-Determination: 2007
UN General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
Reasons for Quebec Separatism
-French Canada was forcibly subjugated by English Canada
-Quebec already is like a sovereign country: distinct language, culture, legal tradition, history, and has nationalist leaders.
-Anyone who would deny Quebec the right to independence and self-determination must be ignorant of Quebec's exceptional history.
-Tired of having their concerns belittled by the other provinces.
-Quebec could probably be included in North America Free Trade Agreement.
Against Quebec Separatism
-In support of federalism to keep peace and achieve regional and national interests of different ethnic groups
-Both Quebec and Canada would weaken if Quebec splits (economically and politically)
complex for Washington to have to negotiate with both Canada and Quebec on important issues like security, environmental protection and trade.
-1980s: Separatist movement in Quebec led Anglophones from Montreal to Toronto (what would happen if they actually separated?)
-Quebec is 20% Anglophone
-⅔ of Quebec land is Cree and Inuit who oppose separating
-Canada’s' population would decrease if Quebec separates.
-If Quebec separates, other provinces may also consider separating from Canada.
-Quebec has received many generous concessions from the rest of Canada in order to preserve their French heritage, and they also are the beneficiaries of many economic benefits as a province of Canada.
Following the Communist victory on China mainland, two million Chinese nationalists fled to Taiwan and established a govt
Taiwan was recognized as the legitimate govt of "China" (Taiwan) in the UN
Seat in UN passed from Taiwan to Communist China and Taiwan was left as an independent island without "official recognition" as a country
Taiwan doesn't want to be a part of China anymore, and is in pursuit of SD with the US supporting them.
China's POV on Taiwan
- Taiwan is a part of China
- China also created a law stating that no part of Chinese territory may secede from China
- Many believe that China would use military force to prevent Taiwan from separating
What was Kosovo a part of in the 20th century?
What happen in the 1990s in regards to Kosovo?
Yugoslav federation broke up and the area became a province of Serbia.
What problems did Kosovo face after becoming part of Serbia?
90% of Kosovars are ethnic Albanians and the rest are ethnic Serbians. Most Albanian Kosovars are Muslims, but most Serbian Kosovars are Christians belonging to the Serbian Orthodox Church.
Kosovo has endured centuries of religious and ethnic conflict.
What happened in the late 1990s in regards to Kosovo's conflict?
Religious and ethnic conflicts became so violent that the UN sent NATO troops to administer the province.
How long has Serbians been in Kosovo and how long have Albanians been in Kosovo?
When did France colonize Southeast Asia (Vietnam)?
1500s many colonial powers began colonizing southeast Asia and by the 1800s France took control of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia conquered and renamed French Indochina.
The Vietnam War and date
1965: US increased support for South Vietnamese government by sending more than 200,000 troops (over 4 years this expanded to 500,00 troops) and into Cambodia
US supporters of the war claimed they wanted to stop communism spread for American interest and for freedom of the Viet
United States 1960s influence on Vietnam
- Opposition to American involvement in Vietnam war, says that American forces had no right to interfere in a dispute between the peoples of Vietnam
- Damage caused by US sacrificed American lives and physical and economic damage of Vietnam people.
Why do Tibetans think they are a distinct nation?
Tibet was a separate country with prominent Buddhist religion and their own culture, language and traditions ruled by the Dalai Lama spiritually and politically before the invasion of China in 1950
(many countries emerging from colonial rule) China invaded Tibet and took control of gov’t. Destroyed monasteries, suppressed Buddhist religion. Dalai Lama looked towards the UN for help, but they decided this was a conflict strictly between China and Tibet
Tibet: 21st century
Tibet had become autonomous but still are controlled by China. The opening of the Qinghai Railway in 2006 left Tibetans in fear of assimilation with a flood of Chinese immigration.
UN members have spoken out and tried to pass resolutions upholding Tibetan’s right to self-determination
What is a successor state? Rights of people of successor states?
-A country created from a previous state
-According to UN, charter and international law these people have right to choose nationality
-East India Company were losing control on India and Britain stepped in and took over called British India through British East India Company
-This time was called Raj “Reign” Indians had no political power, pursuit of national self-determination ignored.
-Indian National Congress was also created for independence. Muslims and Hindus worked together.
India: Early 20th century
Indian nationalist movements grew.
1919: Britain gave a parliament made up of rich Indians but they had no real power
Ghandi's movement in India
Mohandas Gandhi created a non-violent movement for Indian independence
Fostered Indian nationalism, independence without bloodshed
Growing campaign frightened British India
Britain had control of India, through the British East India Company. Indian National Congress was also created for independence. Muslims and Hindus worked together.
Creation of Pakistan
Late 1800s: Indians formed Indian National Congress to work towards independence (Muslims and Hindus 2 dominant groups)
1906:Muslims were also beginning to resent the control by the Hindu majority and created the All India Muslim League to create their own nation state after British left led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and declared it be named Pakistan.
What does it mean to pursue self-determination?
The attempt to gain - or keep - the power to control their own affairs. They believe in collective interest to make their own decisions about what will benefit them.
What happened in 2008 and what were the Serbian's worries?
Kosovo gained independence but the Serbians worried about assimilation. They were afraid of losing their rights and ancient traditions/culture. They have strong ties to ancient churches, Kosovo plays an integral role in Serbian identity.
As WW1 closed, what idea did the American President support and why?
Supported "free self-determination of nations." in hopes it would keep peace in Europe
Louis L. Snyder opinion on self-determination
The desire for self-determination supports the right of a people to freely choose how they will be governed. Just as self-determination can unify people, it can also drive them apart.
Self-determination on a nation-state level
helps people see their nation as unique and indivisible
Self-determination on a collective level
can disrupt a nation-state if some do not believe the state represents their interests or support goals
Charter of the United Nations on Self-determination
Develop friendly relations among nations based on respect of equal rights and self-determination. Taking appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace
Ongoing battle in nation states
sovereignty of a nation-state and right of people's self-determination
Outside perspective of Kosovo's independence?
Viewed by China and Russia as a threat to Serbia's integrity and status as a nation state.
"Null and void"
UN did not accept their independence and concerned the aspirations of a people who believes to be united , describing self-determination as a force of convergence and divergence
Javier Leon Diaz's description of 'a people'
a group who share a common historical tradition, language, and religion, identify themselves as a distinct cultural group and have a traditional connection to a territory.
What are colonies?
ruled by the government of another country
1914 Britain and Canada
Britain declared war on Germany, Canada was no longer a British colony but not yet independent. Britain still had control of Canada's foreign policy so Canada was also at war
What is decolonization?
When a colonial power withdraws from a colony, those formerly colonized can form a sovereign nation-state
Decolonization in relation to self-determination?
Decolonized countries can join the UN to exercise sovereignty under international law but decolonized people have to deal with aftermath of colonization. Colonial powers may force off a culture, language, religion, or tradition and violent conflicts arise.
Vietnam in WW2 and effects?
Japan invaded and many became committed to independence.Communist leader Ho Chi Minh and Viet Minh independence movement fought against the Japanese and again against the French(had american support) who they defeated in 1954 when they reoccupied the country after the war
Afterwards, Vietnam was split into two: northern Democratic Republic of Vietnam (communist area supported by Soviet Union and China) and the Republic of South Vietnam (supported by the dictators and the West)
Vietnam in Cold War
became battleground between the north and south. A peace treaty called for elections to take place in South Vietnam but never did. South Vietnam was opposed by communist Viet Cong guerilla fighters.
Martin Luther King opinion on Vietnam War
“The war in Vietnam is the principle of self-determination… Whether we realize it or not, our participation in the Vietnam war is an ominous expression of our lack of sympathy for the oppressed, our paranoid anti-Communism, our failure to feel the ache and anguish of the have nots. It reveals our willingness to continue participating in neo-colonialist adventures.”
Why did the US send more troops to Vietnam?
United States grew increasingly fearful of the growth of communism in Southeast Asia. The United States sent military forces to prevent the spread of communism. American political leaders condemned communism as being undemocratic and a threat to free market values.
What did the Supporters of communism believe?
communism is a system that would promote economic equality and a more cooperative and just society.
Cambodia's state in 1975-1979
part of French Indochina, Controlled by Pol Pot (brutal communist dictator) led movement Khmer Rouge
What was the Khmer Rouge?
Cambodians were forced to work on inefficient and poorly run collective farms. Murdered, starved, diseased, exhausted
Pol Pot overthrown by Vietnamese government in 1979 and Cambodia became a constitutional monarchy, the country remained politically unstable.
The Khmer Rouge continued to fight a guerrilla war
The progress of Cambodia and Khmer Rouge?
1993: Cambodians voted under UN-supervised election but peace was not achieved until 1998 20 years after genocide
Justice slow for survivors of Khmer Rouge regime
Struggle for justice after peace in Cambodia? International law purpose?
2003 - UN set up tribunal to try former Khmer Rouge members accused of genocide and crimes against humanity. Includes UN-appointed and Cambodian judges, disagreements between international law and respect for Cambodian justice traditions. (some members of Cambodian government were former Khmer Rouge = complex)
Observer Theary Seng (author, lawyer, activist) parents killed by Khmer Rouge say trials have been delayed and losing purpose.
Many Khmer Rouge officials, victims and witnesses are now dead and Pol Pot died in 1998
International law enables Cambodia to bring justice to those accused of genocide and crimes against humanity.
Indian Prime Minister 1959 on Tibet
‘It is immoral for a country to lay full or partial claim on its neighboring state… the last voice of Tibet should be the people of Tibet
Dalai Lama to UN 1950 on Tibet
Armed Invasion of Tibet… through physical force is a… case of aggression...Tibet (forced) to become a part of China against their will and consent...grossest instance of violation of….weak by the strong. We appeal through… nations of the world… to intercede.”
Soviet Union collapse
15 successor states emerged as Lithuanians, Estonians, Latvians, Russians, and more
Gandhi vs Muhammad
Muhammad: Muslims are a nation with our own distinctive culture, and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of value and proportion, legal laws and moral codes
Gandhi: A Bengali Muslim speaks the same tongue as Bengali Hindu, eats the same food, has the same amusements.
Leading up to independence, Muslims and Hindus grew violent
India achieved independence and Pakistan became second successor state to former British India
History of Canada
First colonized by French then British
Aboriginals became minority
Canada's step towards Indigenous' rights in 1982
Canada established new constitution which affirmed Aboriginal and treaty rights but aboriginals thought decolonization was just the beginning
UN’s core values offer conflicting views of self-determination
UN countries have right to sovereignty - peoples within those countries have right to control their own affairs and make decisions in their collective interests
Education in Nunavut
promotes Inuit culture and has Nunavut Arctic College that has 3 campuses at 24 widely dispersed community learning centres while helping young people develop economically
Foundation founded in 1971 for Self-determination for Inuit
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami which represents Inuit people in Canada, was largely responsible for the creation of Nunavut. Foundation advocates for SD promoting interests of Inuit people.
Metis Association of Alberta
renamed Metis Nation of Alberta fights for SD today
Aboriginal position in the independence of Quebec
-11 Aboriginals groups within Quebec borders do not wish to separate from Canada, some have said that if Quebec separates, they would leave Quebec.
-The Metis Nation value Canada’s diversity and believe that the recognition of distinct nations within Canada, such as the Quebecois and the Metis, strengthens our bonds with Canada and to each other. Our nation hoods and rights have already been protected by the constitution. Respect and recognition for the diversity is important. They carry the right to live on their traditional and treaty territories and to develop their own distinctive language and culture.
A theory on why Canada took a month before recognizing Kosovo as a new nation
Some say that the reason for Canada’s delay in the recognition of Kosovo as a new nation-state is fear that it will drive people of Quebec to do the same.
2006 Harper on Quebec seperatism
created a motion in the House of Commons that the Quebecois form a nation within a united Canada
History of Quebec: 17th century and half of 18th century
Quebec was part of a growing French colonial empire
History of Quebec: 1750s
war broke out between the two France and Britain
History of Quebec: What was the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and when was it?
1759, Britain defeated France in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham outside of Quebec City and is now claimed to be the day that Quebecois lost their independence
History of Quebec: What led to the Rebellion and when was it?
Discrimination, repression, and assimilation of Quebecois by the British led to rebellion in 1837
History of Quebec: How did the hostility towards Canadian government grow stronger?
-Louis Riel a rebel leader was hung
-Canada was required to fight in both World Wars, Anglo-Canadians were eager to go to war but the francophone Quebecois were largely in opposition to this
Why did Quebec disagree on the contribution in war?
no desire to fight a war that they felt Canada had not started and would only lead to the senseless loss of countless Quebec men
What shows the discontent of people from Quebec during difficult years early in the twentieth century?
large French populations today in the states of New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine are a reminder of the emigration of many discontented people
What caused the decrease in the French language and culture?
Many people of French heritage in Quebec couldn’t speak French because of growing pressures to learn English, and French education and French laws that were fundamentally different from those of English Canada were being pressured to change also.
called the Quiet Revolution. There was a re-emphasis on the French language and French culture and thus a profound revival of Quebec nationalism. This Quebec nationalism was further fueled by the 1967 visit of French President Charles de Gaulle when he proclaimed “Vive le Quebec Libre!” (Long Live Free Quebec!)
Attempts to gain independence in Quebec
-1980: there was a referendum for Quebec independence though it was defeated
Canada’s 1982 Constitution so that Quebec would be recognized as a “distinct society” within Canada.
-1987: the Meech Lake Accord was drafted, containing the clause that Quebec would have the power to remain “a distinct society.”
-1990:the Meech Lake Accord failed to gain ratification in Canada’s Parliament.
1994: Parti Quebecois leader Jacques Parizeau won the premiership of Quebec on a platform of promising another referendum on Quebec independence. This vote occurred in 1995. In the weeks leading up to the referendum, polls were indicating that the people of Quebec would in fact vote for independence. At that point, government-owned agencies such as Air Canada offered financial incentives to pro-Canada individuals to vote for continued union with Canada.
How can the Pursuit of national self-determination can result in unintended consequences for others?
loss of homes, personal security, economic prosperity, necessities, and life as well as those who are forced to leave their homeland may lose their cultural heritage. Safeguarding their culture and beliefs is often linked to safeguarding their territory that is tied to their identity.
Life of a refugee
-They face uncertain future or attacks by extremists who do not want to offer them shelter
-Priorities are to find food, shelter, and health care
-They often find their homes, roads, schools, and hospitals in ruins when they return
-They have few ways to earn a living and their country’s justice system may have been shattered with little to no police protection
-Not required to allow refugees to stay and become citizens many are forced to leave
-Give money for encouragement to leave
-The UN and some countries help by supplying aid to some host countries
-Non-gov’t organizations provide relief, aid and service