Flashcards in Semester A Deck (50):
The sound of the language. How we produce sound
Rules and relations of the sound. Ch, sh
Study of the word structure.
The meaning of words and sentences.
How we apply our knowledge of the language.
Our knowledge of the language.
The way we apply our knowledge to the use of the language.
Humans- can talk about things that aren’t happening right now or in front of them.
Animals- can only talk about right here and now.
Humans- the relation between a written word and it meaning is arbitrary.
Animals- have final number of gestures with a relation.
Unique for humans. Can create new words or understand things they never heard before.
Humans- acquire language by being exposed to it.
Animals- born with a set of signs.
Humans- can manipulate the word and create new meanings.
Animals- use the same combination of sounds for one meaning only.
What skills of the human language chimpanzees were able to acquire?
Comprehension and sign language.
What skills chimpanzees weren’t able to acquire?
Reading and speech.
Language is an inborn ability. Every new born can acquire the language he is exposed to by his care takers.
Poverty of stimulusy:
People have a lot of knowledge about a language that they can’t explain. A lot of knowledge even though we teach very little about the language itself.
Biology is responsible for the easy acquisition of a language. A basic biological ability. Chomsky believed we can acquire complex language through very basic and limited teaching of it.
The brain. There is a special part in our brain that allows us to acquire language.
A linguistics damage to the brain that comes after brain injury.
Damage to the speech ability. Struggle to form grammatical sentences. Lack of articles, prepositions, pronouns, auxiliaries and past -ed.
Located on the front left lobe
Damage to comprehension. Will talk fluently but will make no sense.
Located on the left lobe.
Critical age hypothesis
Until the age of 6 we have an ability to acquire language as an L1. Afterwards it is not possible to achieve that level of efficiency. Syntax should be taught that age.
The case of Genie
Was kept isolated by her father until she was 14. Knew how to pronounce words that express her needs without auxiliaries, pronouns, prepositions and asking questions.
Genie full stomach.
She missed the critical age and didn’t acquire syntax.
The autonomy of SLI
Specific language impairment. Delayed or disordered language development among children for no apparent reason.
Universal grammar- universality
Grammar rules who are the same for all languages.
Language is information. Knowledge of sounds, words rules, meaning.
All languages are equal.
Teaching grammar rules by describing what the learner already knows in his mind.
Teaching grammar by prescribe the learner how to use the language as if he knows nothing.
Lexical parts of speech
The smallest unit of meaning.
Micro look at the word we want to analyze. Affixes change meaning or providing with grammatical information.
My, your, his, her, it’s, our, their.
This, that, these, those.
Multimorphemic/ complex word
Word with more than one unit of meaning.
Free lexical morpheme
Contains the content.
Nouns, verbs and adjectives.
Free functional morphemes
Words that will not appear without an other part of speech.
Affixes that change the meaning but can’t stand on its own.
When the affixes only gives us grammatical information.
General meaning gets used to refer to anything that has the same function of the original. To google.
Or, named on a person- Sandwich.
Words from other languages.
Combining whole two words into one. Butterfly.
Combining parts of two words to form a new word. Motel.
Shortening a longer word. Lab=laboratory.
Word is formed from another word by taking off affixes. -er profession.
The use of one word for few meanings.
Initial letters. USA.