Semester A Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Semester A Deck (50):
1

Phonetics

The sound of the language. How we produce sound

2

Phonology

Rules and relations of the sound. Ch, sh

3

Morphology

Study of the word structure.

4

Syntax

Grammar

5

Semantics

The meaning of words and sentences.

6

Pragmatics

How we apply our knowledge of the language.

7

Competence

Our knowledge of the language.

8

Performance

The way we apply our knowledge to the use of the language.

9

Displacement

Humans- can talk about things that aren’t happening right now or in front of them.
Animals- can only talk about right here and now.

10

Arbitrariness

Humans- the relation between a written word and it meaning is arbitrary.
Animals- have final number of gestures with a relation.

11

Creativity/productivity

Unique for humans. Can create new words or understand things they never heard before.

12

Cultural transmission

Humans- acquire language by being exposed to it.
Animals- born with a set of signs.

13

Duality

Humans- can manipulate the word and create new meanings.
Animals- use the same combination of sounds for one meaning only.

14

What skills of the human language chimpanzees were able to acquire?

Comprehension and sign language.

15

What skills chimpanzees weren’t able to acquire?

Reading and speech.

16

Innateness theory

Language is an inborn ability. Every new born can acquire the language he is exposed to by his care takers.

17

Poverty of stimulusy:
Plato’s paradox
Double dissociation

People have a lot of knowledge about a language that they can’t explain. A lot of knowledge even though we teach very little about the language itself.

18

Plato’s paradox

Biology is responsible for the easy acquisition of a language. A basic biological ability. Chomsky believed we can acquire complex language through very basic and limited teaching of it.

19

Double dissociation

The brain. There is a special part in our brain that allows us to acquire language.

20

Aphasia

A linguistics damage to the brain that comes after brain injury.

21

Broca’s

Damage to the speech ability. Struggle to form grammatical sentences. Lack of articles, prepositions, pronouns, auxiliaries and past -ed.
Located on the front left lobe

22

Wernick’s

Damage to comprehension. Will talk fluently but will make no sense.
Located on the left lobe.

23

Critical age hypothesis

Until the age of 6 we have an ability to acquire language as an L1. Afterwards it is not possible to achieve that level of efficiency. Syntax should be taught that age.

24

The case of Genie

Was kept isolated by her father until she was 14. Knew how to pronounce words that express her needs without auxiliaries, pronouns, prepositions and asking questions.
Genie full stomach.
She missed the critical age and didn’t acquire syntax.

25

The autonomy of SLI

Specific language impairment. Delayed or disordered language development among children for no apparent reason.

26

Universal grammar- universality

Grammar rules who are the same for all languages.

27

Generality

Language is information. Knowledge of sounds, words rules, meaning.

28

Parity

All languages are equal.

29

Descriptive grammar

Teaching grammar rules by describing what the learner already knows in his mind.

30

Prescriptive grammar

Teaching grammar by prescribe the learner how to use the language as if he knows nothing.

31

Lexical parts of speech

Nouns
Verbs
Adjectives
Prepositionss

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Morphemes

The smallest unit of meaning.

33

Morphological distribution

Micro look at the word we want to analyze. Affixes change meaning or providing with grammatical information.

34

Possessive adjectives

My, your, his, her, it’s, our, their.

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Demonstrative adjectives

This, that, these, those.

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Interrogative adjectives

Question words.

37

Multimorphemic/ complex word

Word with more than one unit of meaning.

38

Free lexical morpheme

Contains the content.
Nouns, verbs and adjectives.

39

Free functional morphemes

Words that will not appear without an other part of speech.

40

Bound derivational

Affixes that change the meaning but can’t stand on its own.

41

Bound inflectional

When the affixes only gives us grammatical information.

42

Coinage

General meaning gets used to refer to anything that has the same function of the original. To google.
Or, named on a person- Sandwich.

43

Borrowing

Words from other languages.
Piano, croissants.

44

Compounding

Combining whole two words into one. Butterfly.

45

Blending

Combining parts of two words to form a new word. Motel.

46

Clipping

Shortening a longer word. Lab=laboratory.

47

Back formation

Word is formed from another word by taking off affixes. -er profession.

48

Conversion

The use of one word for few meanings.
Major, must.

49

Acronyms

Initial letters. USA.

50

Derivation

Affixes that change the meaning.