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Linguistics > Syntax > Flashcards

Flashcards in Syntax Deck (21):
1

Coinage

New terms.
Google, aspirin.

2

Borrowing

Words from other languages.
Croissant

3

Compounding

Combine two whole words into one.
Notebook.

4

Blending

Combine parts of two words into one.
Motel

5

Clipping

Shortening a long word.
Lab

6

Back formation

Word is formed from another word by taking off an affix.
-er

7

Conversion

The extension of the use of one word from its original category.
Major

8

Acronyms

Initial letters.
USA

9

Derivation

Affixes that change the meaning of a word.
Un-, -less, -ful

10

Syntax rule 1: word order

Specify the correct word order for a language. CVO

11

Meaning and arrangement

The word order contributes to the meaning.
I say what I mean, I mean what I say.

12

Grammatical relations

Provide the information about who is doing whom.

13

Other constraints

Specific verbs behave differently with the respect of the words may follow them.
Believe

14

Words group in a sentence

Ambiguous, words can be grouped in more than one way.

15

What grammar is not based on?

If the sentence was heard before.
If it is untrue.
If the sentence doesn’t mean anything.

16

Constituents

Words that are grouped together

17

The three tests for constituents

1. Word replacement- replaced by one word and keep the same meaning.
2. Move together in a sentence.
3. Can stand alone.

18

Simple sentence

Has one subject and one predicate.

19

Compound sentence

Has more than one part that can stand alone and being connected by coordinating conjunctions or ;

20

Complex sentence

Has a least two parts:
A part that can stand alone and another that is not and connected to the sentence by a subordinating conjunction (after, as, because, before, how, since, than)

21

Compound complex sentence

Has more than one part that stands alone and at least one that cannot.