Sensory Integration Flashcards Preview

621 Quiz #3 > Sensory Integration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sensory Integration Deck (121):
1

SI in OT refers to 3 things:

-the theory
-evaluation methods
-a specific approach to intervention

2

why do OTs get a bad wrap when it comes to SI?

the term is used so loosely within and outside of the profession

3

When working with sensory interventions, DON'T say ..... DO say .....

"I'm DOING sensory integration" / "I'm treating sensory processing disorder"

4

when working with SI, we work from a ....... perspective, NOT .......

occupation-based perspective / single theory or model

5

Steps in SI theory (kind of long but there's an example):

sensory intake (ex: from clothes) > sensory integration (I'm uncomfortable) > planning and organizing behavior (I'm going to sit differently) > adaptive responses and learning > feedback (I'm more comfortable) > sensory intake.....

6

why does SI theory feed into emotional regulation?

you have to address the sensory aversion to avoid a negative emotional association

7

the .......... takes the information from the emotions in our ........ system and associates it to anything

amygdala / limbic

I don't like Natalie > I can't stand anyone who looks like Natalie

8

3 characteristics of SI theory

-explains why individuals behave in particular ways (unable to regulate sensory info)
-helps plan intervention to improve particular dysfunctions (monitor what you're asking of the kid)
-predicts how behavior will change as a result of therapy (knowledge of the patterns and brain processes helps ability to predict)

9

5 assumptions from Ayres SI theory

-CNS is plastic
-SI develops over time
-brain functions as an integrated whole
-adaptive interactions are critical to SI
-there is an inner drive to develop SI through participation in sensorimotor activities

10

Ayres goal was to develop a theory to describe and predict relationships among:

neural functioning, sensorimotor development, and academic learning

11

Ayres definition of SI

the neurological process that organizes sensation from one's own body and from the environment and makes it possible to use the body effectively within the environment

12

when Ayres defined SI, she was moving beyond the concept that....

body, mind, and learning are separate

13

2 outcomes of CNS dysfunction (chart)

-sensory modulation dysfunction
-dyspraxia (somatodyspraxia and BIS)

14

expressions of modulation dysfunction (4) - top to bottom

-aversive response
-gravitational insecurity
-defensiveness (tactile, auditory, visual...)
-under responsiveness

15

expressions of modulation dysfunction lead to (4) - top to bottom

-avoidance
-distractibility (inc activity)
-withdrawn
-sensory seeking

16

CNS site for modulation dysfunction

limbic/reticular

17

postural control is impacted by which senses

-visual
-vestibular
-proprioceptive
-tactile

18

discrimination is impacted by which sense

all (vis, vest, prop, tactile, aud)

19

2 expressions of dyspraxia

-BIS (feedforward-dependent)
-somatodyspraxia (feedforward & feedback-dependent)

20

expressions of dyspraxia lead to (4) - top to bottom

-clumsiness
-clowning
-avoidance of motor behavior
-exaggerated or diminished force

21

modulation dysfunction manifests from difficulties in the ................ areas, while dyspraxia manifests from ................ areas

-limbic/reticular
-posture/discrimination

22

T/F: there can be a mixture of avoidance & sensory seeking

true

23

gravitational insecurity looks like ................. and interventions look like ...............

-avoiding anything off the ground (chairs, swings)
-start at the ground and make tiny increases until body can regulate it
-sloooooooow process b/c gravity is always "on"

24

adaptive responses

using sensation and experience to organize a successful goal directed action in the environment

25

adaptive responses are based upon which type of sensory information

ANY

26

benefit of adaptive responses

allows a child to successfully meet a challenge in the environment

27

child's role in adaptive responses

ACTIVE DOER - you can't put a kid's hand in goo and call it SI b/c you're taking their worst fear and putting it in a box with them

28

6 levels of adaptive responses

-tolerating passive stimuli during activity
-holding on and staying put
-alternate contraction and relaxation of muscle groups
-move independently in a familiar way
-move independently in an unfamiliar way
-complete a complicated activity requiring unfamiliar way, difficult timing, or multiple adaptations

29

importance of "staying put" adaptive response

let them know they're safe and wait out fight or flight response

30

importance of alternating contraction/relaxation of muscle groups in adaptive response

increase self-efficacy & muscle memory

31

why should kids move in familiar then unfamiliar ways within adaptive responses?

-have familiar experiences to build on
then
-increase level of tolerance and give them control of the environment

32

when do you know adaptive responses are truly integrated and generalized?

the final stage is taking place: completing difficult activity in unfamiliar way, difficult timing, or with adaptataions

33

neural plasticity

structure and function of nervous system changes in response to ongoing stimulation

34

examples of neural plasticity

-meaningful and active engagement of child on environment may produce permanent changes
-adults with stroke
-adults who have part of their brain removed can have full cognitive recovery

35

ways to promote neural plasticity

-promote meaningful and purposeful activities
-make them want to engage so they're in charge of the environment

36

feedback

-response from env that changes interaction (pushing a pull door)
-outcome feedback following action
-production feedback (through muscles & body in space)
-how we learn new behaviors

37

feedforward

-anticipatory control
-sending signals ahead of mvmt as we prepare for the mvmt

38

incorporating feedback & feedforward into intervention

work through and process feedback then talk about how to change it in the future (feedforward)

39

where do adaptive responses occur & why? how do you take advantage of this?

limbic system b/c emotions are tied into the response - tie in emotion to enhance the level of trust

40

what promotes adaptive responses?

interactions with the environment

41

inner drive

children have the innate desire to interact with their environment

42

when does the first recognizable response to sensory stim occur?

5 1/2 weeks gestation

43

the most important sense for the newborn

-touch
-smell
-movement
(this is why kangaroo care is so important)

44

importance of tactile input for newborns

establishes trust relationship w/ caregiver

45

newborn feeding is a reflection of.....

essential sensory integration skills

46

vestibular input and newborns

very calming

47

relationship of sensory input to the birthing process

it's usually how decisions are made (water birth, kangaroo care right after)

48

with sensory system maturation in childhood....

the child becomes more independent with exploring the environment > more precise movements > increased sophistication with manipulating objects

49

why are most sensory dysfunctions missed until childhood?

typical childhood activities place more demand on the child as they get older (academic env, unsupervised play, more in control of sensory experiences), so there are wider gaps in which to notice dysfunction

50

Ayres found that SI measures in children are equal to adults at age ..... indicating .....

7 - fully mature SI system and minimal growth opportunities past this age

51

3 primary processing sites in SI expressions of dyspraxia (Ayres)

-vestibular system
-proprioceptive system
-tactile system

52

functional implications of SI dysfunction

-poor posture and body movements
-poor discrimination of sensory input
-altered relationships w/ sensory env and childhood occupations
-impacted roles, relationships, interactions, and engagement
-parent's feelings about selves and role as parent

53

vestibular system is related to ......

-vision
-balance, leading into proprioception

54

somatosensory system is broken into .....

-tactile (more external)
-proprioception (through muscles and joints)

55

why is deep pressure considered proprioceptive?

you're changing the input the joint receives (ex: spine is where compressions should be felt)

56

2 types of receptors

exteroceptors and proprioceptors

57

exteroreceptors are found in ...... and include 4 types

-in the skin
-Meissner's corpuscles (fast)
-Pacinian corpuscles (fast)
-Merkel's disks (slow)
-free nerve endings (slow)

58

proprioceptors are found in ...... and include 2 types

-in soft tissue (deep)
-golgi tendon organs
-muscle spindle (tonic and phasic)

59

fast adapting receptors

-heat and pain
-respond to initiation of input

60

slow adapting receptors

-light/deep touch
-respond to ongoing information

61

which parts of the body have more receptors?

face, feet, hands
-common aversive reactions to socks, shoes, gloves, food...

62

2 organs responsible for vestibular sense

-otoliths
-semicircular canals

63

otoliths: movement

slow and linear mvmt in any position

64

otoliths: facilitated responses

tonic postural movements

65

otoliths: examples

prone in net swing moving slowly back and forth, jumping on a trampoline, 2 point suspended equipment

66

semicircular canals: movement

fast (anything > 6 cycles per minute), transient, angular movements

67

semicircular canals: facilitated responses

phasic postural responses, such as equilibrium

68

semicircular canals: examples

-spinning in a net swing
-1 pt suspension equipment

69

what is commonly associated with vestibular difficulites?

nystagmus

70

vestibular and tactile input come together, because ..... (example)

proprioception and tactile input are similar and when combined, they tell us where we are in space (rocking and flapping at the same time)

71

4 motor tracts

-pyramidal (corticobulbar and corticospinal)
-reticulospinal
-vestibulospinal
-rubrospinal (red nucleus)

72

pyramidal tract

-proprioceptive input
-cortex to SC or face
-force of mucle contraction
-volitional mvmts
-fine precision grip
-motor learning
-prep for internally generated movements

73

reticulospinal tract

-proprioceptive input
-pontine reticulospinal connections
-medullary reticulospinal tract

74

pontine reticulospinal connections

facilitates axial and proximal limb muscles

75

medullary reticulospinal tract

exerts more generalized inhibition of muscles

76

vestibulospinal tract

-vestibular input
-projections to neck extensors and vertebral column extensors
-extensors are facilitated and flexors are inhibited
-strong influence on muscle tone, postural adjustments, postural control, stability

77

rubrospinal tract (red nucleus)

-proprioception & vestibular input
-primarily facilitate flexors of distal muscles closely w/ corticospinal tract
-spinal reflexes

78

motor tracts for proprioceptive input

-pyramidal
-reticulospinal
-rubrospinal

79

motor tracts for vestibular input

-vestibulospinal
-rubrospinal

80

options to provide proprioceptive input

-crawling through tunnel
-climbing
-trampoline
-sliding
*scooterboard: proprioceptive and vestibular

81

responses facilitated by proprioception

-postural repsonses
-body scheme
-regulated force of action

82

can you separate movement from body positioning?

no

83

can the vestibular system act without the proprioceptive system?

not really - they're tied too closely together

84

3 somatosensory tracts

-dorsal column medial lemniscus
-anterolateral system
-trigeminal (facial)

85

dorsal column medial lemniscus

-vibration
-discriminatory touch
-touch-pressure
-proprioceptive info

86

2 parts of anterolateral system

-spinothalamic
-spinoreticular

87

spinothalamic

sharp pain and temperature

88

spinoreticular

-dull/burning pain
-temperature
-pressure and non discriminatory touch

89

trigeminal tract

pain, temp, light touch/pressure

90

limbic system is involved in

memory, emotions, learning, motivation

91

reticular activating system characteristics

diffuse system that runs through the brainstem, reticular formation nuclei in the core of the brainstem

92

reticular activating system is involved in .....

alertness, arousal, and attention

93

T/F: sensory processing is completed mostly in primary cortical regions of the brain

false

94

T/F: sensory processing receives greater specificity in interpretation as it progresses through CNS

true

95

T/F: a weak stimulus will activate the same number of receptors and action potentials that a strong stimulus will activate

false

96

with stimulus encoding (not sure what that is), sensory receptors respond optimally to .....

specific types of input depending on the receptor

97

fast adapting sensory receptors .....

respond only at the onset and offset of the stimulus input

98

semicircular canals detect .....

changes in direction and acceleration/deceleration

99

lateral inhibition

-focuses sensory input from receptors to sharpen its interpretation
-performed by specialized cells (interneurons)
-allows discrimination and localization of sensory input

100

T/F: lateral inhibition is used to help spread a small sensory stim to a large area so it will be noticed

false

101

T/F: the sensory homunculus where the DCML/ML pathway terminates, is flexible and can change based on use or disuse

true

102

T/F: the sensations carried in the AL system can be localized precisely

false

103

somatodyspraxia

unable to tell where your body is in space in order to do coordinated mvmts

104

how is somatodyspraxia different from poor coordination?

it's tactile, vestibular, and proprioceptive
(know how to tell the difference between the two)

105

somatodyspraxia difficulties

-tactile discrimination w/ vestib and proprio
-anticipatory, feed forward mvmts and adaptive interactions

106

somatodyspraxia interventions

-body awareness
-response to sensory input

107

sensory discrimination disorder

difficulty interpreting qualities of sensory stimuli (what is in my hand, what is touching me and where, position in chair, am i in motion)

108

smooth, graded, coordinated movements come from .....

discrimination in tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular systems

109

interventions for sensory discrimination disorder

grade the amount of stimulation

110

BIS

-difficulty using both sides of body
-deficits in sequences of mvmt
-difficulty with projected action sequences

111

BIS is a possible result of....

poor proprioceptive and vestibular processing

112

BIS interventions

-bilateral coordination activities
-base of support
-postural stability
-build strength and muscle tone

113

when is dyspraxia usually detected?

3 years old - may be interpreted as individual differences as first, because children reach their developmental milestones
**struggle increases with fine motor skill development**

114

dyspraxia is more recognizable when.....

occupation and participation become more advanced - play challenges my emerge

115

underresponsive modulation

-display inability to orient to relevant stimulation
-can appear under-active or engage in sensory seeking activities

116

poor registration looks like....

-doesn't respond to name
-withdrawn
-likes to play alone

117

overresponsive modulation

-symptoms that are a result of aversive or defensive reactions
-overly sensitive or avoidant
-cover ears, shut down, etc..

118

sensory seeking characteristics

-on the move
-crashing, bumping...
-excessive spinning
-eating dirt or sand
-almost impossible to do activities that do not allow movement

119

aversive response to movement

-strong discomfort, nausea, etc following angular or rotary mvmt
-semicircular canals are reponsible

120

which organs are responsible for gravitational insecurity?

otolith organs

121

know difference between

Ayres, Dunn, and Miller!!!