Session 1-4: DNA & Cell Cycle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 1-4: DNA & Cell Cycle Deck (21):
1

What is the complementary DNA sequence for 5'GGGATTCC?

5'GGAATCCC

2

What are the three phases of the cell cycle?
What happens during these phases?

Interphase-interval between divisions
Mitosis-division of chromosomes
Cytokinesis- division of cytoplasm

3

What happens during Prophase of Mitosis?

Chromosomes condense and become shorter
Nuclear membrane breaks down

4

What happens during Metaphase of mitosis?

Chromosomes move the the equator of the cell

5

What happens during Anaphase of mitosis?

Centromeres divide
Chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell

6

What happens during Telophase of mitosis?

Chromosomes decondense
New nuclear envelope is formed

7

In a strand of DNA the 1' carbon of the nucleotide is linked to what?

The base

8

In a strand of DNA the 5' Carbon of the nucleotide is linked to what?

A phosphate

9

In a double strand of DNA, complementary base pairs are held together by what?

Hydrogen bonds

10

How many hydrogen bonds are there between the complementary bases, Adenine and Thymine?

There are 2 hydrogen bonds between A and T

11

How many bonds are there between the complementary base pairs, Cytosine and Guanine?

There are 3 hydrogen bonds between C and G

12

Nucleotides are joined by (1)_____________________ bonds during a (2)_________________ reaction.

(1) Phosphodiester
(2) Condensation

13

During meiosis diploid cells divide to produce ______ daughter cells, each with ______ chromosomes.

Haploid
23

14

Two round of division during meiosis ensures what?

Precise reduction in chromosome number therefore maintaining the same number of chromosomes from generation to generation.

15

Genetic variation is produced in which two ways?

1) Random assortment of maternal/paternal chromosomes
2) Crossing over of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes

16

When spermatocytes undergo meiosis, they produce how many spermatids?
Are they Haploid or diploid?

4
Haploid

17

Do homologous chromosomes have the same DNA sequence?
Do they have the same genes?

Yes and Yes

18

Do homologous chromosomes have the same variants of genes? What are these variants called?

Yes they can do
They are called alleles

19

Do sister chromatids have the same DNA?
Do they have identical alleles?

Yes they do
Yes they have identical alleles

20

What makes non-sister chromatids different to sister chromatids?

Non-sister chromatids have the same genes but not necessarily the same alleles, sister chromatids have the same genes and the same, identical alleles.

21

What process swaps alleles around?

Crossing over