Session 5: Protein Structure and Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 5: Protein Structure and Function Deck (16):
1

Proteins are _________ made up of ________ ______________

polypeptides
amino acids

2

Amino acids are joined covalently by what bonds to give the sequence of the protein?

Peptide bonds

3

The amino acid sequence of a peptide is encoded by what?

A gene

4

The ____________ sequence of a gene determines the amino acid sequence of a protein

nucleotide

5

Polypeptide chain folds into a complex and highly specific 3D structure determined by what?

The sequence of amino acids

6

What is the process by which RNA is produced from DNA?

Transcription

7

What is the process by which RNA is used to create proteins?

Translation

8

What are the general structural features of all amino acids?

An amino group
A carboxyl group
A central carbon atom
A hydrogen atom
A side chain that differs between amino acids (R group)

9

Amino acids are classified based on what?

The chemical and physical properties of the R group

10

What do we call amino acids that are joined together and have therefore lost their amino and hydroxyl groups?

Amino acid residues

11

Acid-base behaviour of amino acids is determined by what?

The R group

12

What is an amino acid residue?

What remains of an amino acid after it has been joined by a peptide bone to form a protein

13

What does the pKa of an acid tel us?

How likely an acid is to ionise

14

The lower the pKa the.....

more likely it is to lose a proton (act as an acid)

15

The higher the pKa the........

more likely it is to gain a proton (act as a base)

16

Glutamate and aspartate are _____________ charged at physiological pH. They have relatively ______ pKa values.

Negatively
Low