Session 10 - The immunocompromised Host Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 10 - The immunocompromised Host Deck (13)
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1

What is an 'immunocompromised' host?

State in which the immune system is unable to respond appropriately and effectively to infectious microorganisms.

This is due to a defect in one or more components of the immune system.

2

Which portion of immunity is it more dangerous to be immunocompromised in?

The adaptive immune response.

3

What is primary immunodeficiency?

Where the person affected has had immune problems from birth (it is congenital).

This can involve:

  • Missing a protein (prevents immune cells from maturing)
  • Missing a cell
  • Non-functional components

4

What is secondary immunodeficiency?

Where the patient has acquired an immunocompromising disease.

This can involve:

  • Decrease in production of immune components
  • Increase in loss of immune components

(commonly happens in malnutrition)

5

When should you suspect an immunodeficiency?

Infections that suggest an underlying immune deficiency:

Severe: life threatening

Persistant: an infection that persists despite normal treatment

Unusual: an unusual site or microorganism of infection

Recurrent: keeps coming back even after treatment

6

What are the different kinds of primary immunodeficiency diseases?

  • Antibody deficiencies 
  • Combines T and B cell deficiencies
  • Phagocytic defects (mainly neutrophils)

7

What is the most likely primary immunodeficiency disease if the age of symptom onset is less than 6 months?

A T cell or phagocyte defect.

8

What is the most likely primary immunodeficiency disease if the age of symptom onset is between the ages 6 months to 5 years?

B cell/antibody or phagocyte defect.

9

What is the most likely primary immunodeficiency disease if the age of symptom onset is over 5 years old?

B cell, antibody, or complement defect.

Can also consider a secondary immunodeficiency.

10

What are some of the main primary immunodeficiency diseases?

  • Severe Comprimised Immunodeficiency (SCID): T cell defeciency
  • Bruton's disease (X-linked): Antibody deficiency
  • Chronic Granulomatas Disease (CGD): phagocytic defect
  • Combined Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID): Antibody deficiency

11

What supportive treatment can be used for primary immunodeficiencies?

  • Infection prevention
  • Treat infections promptly 
  • Nutritional support (vitamins)
  • Avoid live attenuated vaccines

12

What specific treatment can be used for primary immunodeficiencies?

  • Regular immunoglobulin therapy

 

In SCID: haematopoietic stem cell therapy (90% success rate)

13

How can an immunodeficiency disease be tested for?

  • Tests for humoral (antibody) immunity
  • Tests for cell mediated immunity
  • Tests for phagocytic cells

Definitive tests also used for molecular testing and gene mutations.