Session 6 - Infections on Surfaces Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 6 - Infections on Surfaces Deck (20)
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1

What is a surface?

Interface between a solid and either a liquid or gas.

2

What are some nautral surfaces that can carry infections?

Surfaces on the human body:

  • Skin
    • epithelium
    • hair
    • nails
  • Mucosal surfaces
    • conjunctival
    • gastrointestinal
    • respiratory
    • genitourinary

3

What are some microorganisms that live on the skin?

  • Human Papilloma Virus
  • Herpes simplex
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Yeasts

4

What are some mucosal flora present on the eye?

  • Coagulase negative staphylococci 
  • Neiserria species

5

What are some muscosal flora present in the nares and nasopharynx?

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Haemophilus influenzae

6

What are some mucosal flora present in the mouth?

  • Neisseria
  • Lactobacillus
  • Candida

7

What are some mucosal flora present in the stomach?

  • Streptococci
  • Staphylococci

8

What are some mucosal flora present in the intestine?

  • Lactobacillus
  • Aerobic and anaerobic streptococci
  • Clostridium
  • Yeasts

9

What are some mucosal flora present in the urethra?

  • Enterobacteriacaea
  • Lactobacilli
  • Alpha and non-haemolytic streptococci
  • Enterococci

10

What are some mucosal flora present in the vagina?

  • Lactobacilli
  • Micrococci
  • Yeasts
  • Enterococcus faecali

11

What is the purpose of microorganisms on skin and mucosal surfaces?

  • Normally harmless and can be beneficial
  • They take up space and nutrients, making it more difficult for malignant pathogens to grow on the skin

12

How do people get infections from normal flora?

Invasion:

  • Streptococcus pyogenes causing pharyngitis

Migration:

  • E. coli causing UTI

Innoculation:

  • coagulase negative staphylococcus causing prosthetic joint infection

Haematogenous (gets into the blood)

  • viridans streptococcus endocarditis

13

What are some examples of external nautral surface infections?

  • Cellulitis
  • Pharyngitis
  • Conjunctivis
  • Gastroenteritis
  • UTI
  • Pneumonia

14

What are some examples of internal natural surface infections?

  • Endovascular
    • Endocarditis
    • Vasculitis
  • Septic arthritis
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Empyema (collection of pus in a cavity i.e. pleural cavity)

15

What are some examples of prosthetic surface infections?

  • Intravascular lines
  • Periotneal dialysis catheters
  • Prosthetic joints
  • Cardiac valves
  • Pacing wires
  • Endovascular grafts
  • Ventriculo-peritoneal shunts

16

What is the process of pathogenesis of infection at surfaces?

  • Adherence to host cells or prosthetic surface
  • Formation of a biofilm
  • Invasion and multiplication
  • Host response (normal infection response)

17

What is a biofilm?

A thin but strong layer of slime-like substance that adheres to a solid surface. Biofilms also contain a community of bacteria and other microorganisms.

18

What is the importance of a biofilm?

It allows for bacteria to grow on either a natural or prosthetic surface.

This makes it easier for a bacteria to spread from a surface to a host, leading to an infection.

19

How can infections on natural surfaces be prevented?

  • Maintain surface integrity
  • Prevent bacterial surface colonisation
  • Remove colonising bacteria

20

How can infections on prosthetic surfaces be prevented?

  • Prevent contamination
  • Inhibit surface colonisation
  • Remove colonising bacteria