Session 3: Autoimmunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 3: Autoimmunity Deck (27)
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1

Define autoimmunity.

Immune response against the host due to the loss of immunological tolerance of self-antigen.

The host should not react but it does for some reason.

2

Define autoimmune disease.

Disease caused by tissue damage or disturbed physiological response due to an autoimmune response.

3

Classifications of autoimmune disease.

Organ specific

Non-organ specific

4

Explain organ specific autoimmune disease.

One or multiple self antigens within one single organ or tissue.

5

Explain non-organ specific autoimmune disease.

Wide distributed self antigens throughout the body causing problems.

6

Give examples of organ specific autoimmune diseases.

Hashimoto's

T1DM

MS

Anti-GBM syndrome

Addison's

Graves'

Myasthenia gravis

Pernicious anaemia

7

Give examples of non-organ specific autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

RA

SLE

Sjogren's syndrome

Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

8

9

What are the different autoimmune disease drivers?

It can be autoantibody driven or autoreactive T cell driven.

10

Primary Autoantibody in Graves'

Anti-TSHR (e.g. TSI)

11

Primary Autoantibody in Myasthenia gravis

Anti-acetylcholine receptor

12

Primary Autoantibody in Anti-GBM syndrome

Anti-anti-Glomerular basement membrane

13

Secondary autoantibody in SLE

Anti-nuclear

14

Secondary autoantibody in pernicious anaemia.

Anti-gastric parietal cell

15

Secondary autoantibody in hashimoto thyroiditis

Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (E.g. Anti-TPO)

16

Secondary autoantibody in RA

Anti-rheumatoid factor

17

Set of criteria for the diagnosis of a disease as autoimmune.

Presence of autoantibodies/autoreactive T cells

Autoantibodies/autoreactive T cells found at the site of tissue damage

Transfer of auto-antibody or autoreactive T cells to a healthy host will induce the autoimmune disease.

Clinical benefit is provided by immunomodulatory therapy

FH

18

How does levels of auto-antibodies relate with disease severity.

Positively linear.

More autoantibodies -> more severe disease.

19

What triggers autoimmunity?

Genetic factors such as family history (sibling and identical twins makes it more common) and also mutations.

Environmental factors

20

Give examples of environmental factors that can trigger autoimmune disease.

Hormones

Infections

Drugs

21

What infection causes rheumatic fever?

Streptococcus pyogenes M protein with an antigen in cardiac muscle.

22

What infection can cause Guillain-Barré syndrome?

Campylobacter jejuni glycoproteins with myelin-associated gangliosides.

23

What infection can cause T1DM?

Coxsakieviruse B4 nuclear protein

24

D-penicillamine is a drug given sometimes for RA.

What autoimmune diseases can they cause?

Myasthenia gravis

Pemphigus

SLE

Glomerulonephritis

25

Methyl-dopa is a drug that can be given as an anti-hypertensive.

What autoimmune disease can this cause?

Haemolytic anaemia

26

Which drugs can cause SLE?

D-penicillamine

Hydralazine

Procainamide

Isoniazid

Minocycline

27

How might you detect autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells at the site of tissue damage?

Biopsy

Indirect immunofluorescence

Immunofluorescence

Radioimmunoassay

Coombs test

Agglutination