What are the functions of the neck?
- structural (head support and movement)
- conduit for blood vessles and nerves
- visceral functions
What compartment are structural functions of the neck associated with?
- inside prevertebral fascia
What compartment are conduit functions of the neck associated with?
- inside or associated with carotid sheaths
What compartment are visceral functions of the neck associated with?
- inside or associated with pretracheal fascia
What are the major compartments of the neck?
There are 4:
- 2x vascular
Vertebral component of the neck
- contains cervical vertebrae and associated postural msucles
- surrounded by prevertebral fascia
Vascular compartments of the neck
- surrounded by carotid sheath
- contain major blood vessles and the vagus nerve
Visceral compartment of the neck
- surrounded by pretracheal fascia
- important glands: thyroid, parathyroid, thymus
- parts of the digestive and resp. tract that pass between head and thorax
How many compartments are there in the neck?
4 compartments, 3 types (vascular, visceral, vertebral)
A collection of muscles that come from the larynx, thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone and resemble straps.
Levels of the neck (know this for images)
C1: open mouth
C2: superior cervical ganglion
C3: body of hyoid
C4: upper border of thyroid cartilage bifurcation of common carotid artery
C6: cricoid cartilage middle cervical ganglion
C7: inferior cervical ganglion
Where can the cervical ganglia be found?
- superior cervical ganglion: C2
- middle cervical ganglion: C6
- inferior cervical ganglion: C7
Remember: sympathetic outflow is thoracolumbar so the ganglia provide SNS stimulation to the head
At what level does the CCA bifurcate?
What are the borders of the anterior neck triangle made up of?
Posterior: sternocleidomastoid muscle
Superior: inferior border of mandible
Anterior: midline from sternum to middle of mandible
What are the borders of the posterior neck triangle made up of?
Anterior: sternocleidomastoid muscle
Inferior: (middle third) Clavicle
Posterior: Trapezius muscle
What is found in the anterior triangle?
- Mainly muscles:
- Infrahyoid (strap) muscles
- Carotid arteries, internal jugular vein
What is found in the posterior triangle?
Mainly blood vessels and nerves:
- External jugular vein - Subclavian artery - Subclavian vein - Trunks of the brachial plexus - Phrenic nerve - Vagus nerve - Spinal accessory nerve
What does the accessory nerve innervate?
- sternocleidomastoid muscle
- trapezius muscle
Which muscle covers a major proportion of the big blood vessles?
internal jugular vein, common carotid
Do vocal chords have lymphatic drainage?
What nerves do you have to be careful about in the neck area?
- recurrent laryngeal