Session 3 - Lymphatic Drainage Of The Head And Neck Flashcards Preview

Head, Neck and Neuroanatomy > Session 3 - Lymphatic Drainage Of The Head And Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 3 - Lymphatic Drainage Of The Head And Neck Deck (29):
1

Lymphatic vessels provide a route for the spread of what?

Infection
Malignancies

2

The lymphatics is a low pressure system, what keeps lymph fluid moving?

Muscle contraction
Pulsation of arteries
Valves

3

All lymph fluid eventually drains into one of what two main lymphatic ducts?

Right lymphatic duct
Thoracic duct

4

The right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct drain into what veins?

Subclavian veins

5

What is lymphoedema?

The abnormal collection of protein-rich fluid causing tissue swelling due to a compromised lymphatic system.

6

Give some possible causes of lymphoedema.

Removal or enlargement of lymph nodes
Infections (e.g. certain parasites)
Damage to the lymphatic system (e.g. cancer treatments)
Lack of limb movement
Congenital (e.g. Milroy’s syndrome)

7

How do lymph nodes act as a defence against infection?

Physical filter
Phagocytic filter
Full of lymphocytes - activate and proliferate in response to antigens

8

What is lymphadenopathy?

Enlarged lymph nodes

9

What are the two main causes of lymphadenopathy?

Infection (most common)
Malignancy

10

How does lymphadenopathy caused by infection differ to lymphadenopathy caused by malignancy?

Infection - lymphadenopathy is tender, mobile
Malignancy - lymphadenopathy is hard, matted, non-tender

11

Give examples of conditions that present with cervical lymphadenopathy.

Upper respiratory tract infection
Glandular fever
Stomach cancer
Lung cancer
Laryngeal cancer
Lymphoma

12

What is the difference between a terminal and regional lymph node?

Regional - superficial, drain specific areas
Terminal - deep, receive drainage from a number of regional lymph nodes

13

In the neck, superficial (regional) and deep (terminal) lymph nodes are separated by what layer of cervical fascia?

Investing layer of deep cervical fascia

14

In the neck, most deep lymph nodes are associated with what blood vessel?

Internal jugular vein

15

Name the superficial (regional) lymph nodes of the head.

Submental
Submandibular
Pre-auricular
Post-auricular
Occipital

16

Name the superficial (regional) cervical lymph nodes and the blood vessels they are associated with.

Superficial - external jugular vein
Posterior - external jugular vein
Anterior - anterior jugular vein

17

What is Waldeyer’s ring?

Collection of lymphatic tissue (nodules) surrounding the entrance to the aerodigestive tracts. Consists of the tonsils.

18

Name the tonsils.

Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
Tubal tonsils
Palatine tonsils
Lingual tonsils

19

Which tonsil of Waldeyer’s ring can you most readily view when examining a patient’s oropharynx?

Palatine

20

Name the deep cervical lymph nodes.

Jugulo-digastric
Jugulo-omohyoid
Supraclavicular

21

Which tonsil do you see as enlarged in tonsillitis?

Palatine

22

The jugulo-digastric node receives lymph drainage from where?

Palatine tonsil, oral cavity and the tongue.

23

The jugulo-omohyoid node mainly receives lymph drainage from where?

Tongue, oral cavity, trachea, oesophagus and thyroid gland.

24

Which deep cervical lymph node enlarges in tonsillitis?

Jugulo-digastric

25

The supraclavicular lymph nodes receive lymph drainage from where?

Abdomen and thorax

26

What does Virchow’s node refer to?

An enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node, which may not necessarily be pathogenic.

27

What does Trosier’s sign refer to?

An enlarged, hard left supraclavicular lymph node secondary to a metastatic abdominal malignancy.

28

Give some clinical manifestations of disease involving the lymphatic system.

Lymphoedema
Swollen lymph nodes
Cervical lymphadenopathy

29

Summarise the key roles of the lymphatic system.

Remove excess fluid from interstitial space.
Return small proteins and fluid to circulation.
Immune defence and immune surveillance:
- physical and phagocytic barrier
- lymphocytes