Session 6 - Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Head, Neck and Neuroanatomy > Session 6 - Autonomic Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 6 - Autonomic Nervous System Deck (25):
1

Is the autonomic nervous system part of the central or peripheral nervous system?

Peripheral nervous system

2

What are the general target tissues of autonomics?

Smooth muscle
Glands

3

Where does sympathetic outflow arise from?

Thoracolumbar region (T1-L2) of the spinal cord

4

Sympathetic outflow to the head and neck arises from which spinal segments specifically?

T1/T2 spinal segments

5

Where do preganglionic sympathetic fibres synapse?

The sympathetic chain

6

Preganglionic sympathetic fibres going to the head and neck synapse in which ganglia?

Superior and middle cervical ganglia

7

Describe the route of sympathetic nerves innervating the head and neck.

Sympathetic outflow to the head and neck arises from T1/T2.
Preganglionic sympathetic fibres ascending from the thorax, up the sympathetic chain to reach the neck.
Synapse in one of the upper cervical ganglia (superior or middle cervical ganglia).
Post ganglionic sympathetic fibres hitch hike on blood vessels to reach their target tissues.

8

Post ganglionic sympathetic fibres hitch hike on what structures to reach their target tissues?

Blood vessels (internal and external carotid arteries and their branches)

9

What are the functions of sympathetic nerves to the head and neck?

Pupillary dilation
Assists lid retraction
Sweating
Vasoconstriction

10

What are the effector tissues of sympathetics to the head and neck?

Dilator pupillae
Superior tarsal muscle
Blood vessels
Sweat glands

(Sympathetic nerves also innervate salivary and lacrimal glands, but their effect is to decrease secretions).

11

What pathologies can cause Horner’s syndrome?

Pathology involving the apex of the lung and internal carotid artery.

12

What are the three characteristics of Horner’s syndrome?

Partial ptosis
Miosis (constricted pupil)
Anhydrosis

13

Why does pathology in a lung apex (e.g. cancer) or the internal carotid artery cause Horner’s syndrome?

Causes interruption to sympathetic fibres and therefore autonomic dysfunction in the eye and face.

14

Which cranial nerves ‘carry’ parasympathetic fibres from the brainstem?

Oculomotor (CN III)
Facial (CN VII)
Glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
Vagus (CN X)

15

From what four parasympathetic nuclei do parasympathetic fibres arise from?

EDINGER WESTPHAL
Superior salivary
Inferior salivary
Dorsal motor

16

In what four parasympathetic ganglia do the pre ganglionic parasympathetic fibres synapse?

Ciliary
Pterygopalatine
Submandibular
Otic

17

Most post ganglionic sympathetic fibres hitch hike on what cranial nerve?

Trigeminal (CN V)

18

Parasympathetic fibres that run with the oculomotor nerve (CN III) arise from what nucleus?

Edinger Westphal

19

Pre ganglionic parasympathetic fibres running with the oculomotor nerve synapse at what ganglion?

Ciliary ganglion

20

What are the target tissues of post ganglionic parasympathetic fibres arising from the ciliary ganglion?

Sphincter pupillae
Ciliary body

21

Which two main branches of the facial nerve arise inside the petrous bone?

Greater petrosal nerve
Chorda tympani nerve

22

Which two parasympathetic ganglia are associated the facial nerve (CN VII)?

Pterygopalatine
Submandibular

23

Parasympathetic fibres synapsing in the pterygopalatine ganglion are associated with what nerve?

Greater petrosal nerve (branch of CN VII)

24

Parasympathetic fibres synapsing in the submandibular ganglion are associated with what nerve?

Chorda tympani nerve

25

At the point of the geniculate ganglion, what branch of CN VII arises?

Greater petrosal nerve