Session 3-Mitosis And Meiosis Flashcards Preview

Semester 1-MCBG > Session 3-Mitosis And Meiosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 3-Mitosis And Meiosis Deck (55):
1

What is a telomere?

Repeated sequence (TTAGGG) in humans at each end of chromosome/chromatid. Telomere becomes shorter every time cell divides

2

What is a chromatid?

One of two threadlike strands formed by division during mitosis and meiosis

3

What is a centromere?

Links sister chromatids and consists of repetitive sequences

4

What is the difference between sister and non-sister chromatids?

They both have the same genes but may have different alleles

5

What is the cell division for somatic cells called?

Mitosis

6

What does mitosis produce?

Two identical daughter cells with same chromosome content as parent cell

7

What happens in the G0 stage of the cell cycle?

Cells can leave the cell cycle and enter the inactive state of G0

8

What is the synthesis (S) phase of the cell cycle?

The interval when DNA replication takes place (chromosomes are duplicated)

9

What is the G1 phase of the cell cycle?

Interval of cell growth before DNA replication (chromosomes unduplicated)

10

Which phases are included in interphase?

G1, S and G2

11

What happens in the G2 phase of the cell cycle?

Interval following DNA replication when the cell prepares to divide

12

What are the 5 stages of mitosis?

Prophase
Prometaphase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

13

What happens in prophase?

Nuclear membrane disappears
Chromosomes become visible
Spindle fibres appear

14

What happens in prometaphase?

Microtubule spindles attach to centromere
Chromosomes condense

15

What happens in metaphase?

Chromosomes line up in middle (metaphase plate)
Random alignment of chromosomes

16

What happens in anaphase?

Microtubule spindles pull each replicated chromosome apart and chromatids separate and go to separate poles of cell

17

What is the name given when the chromatids are separated in anaphase?

Chromosome (46 chromosomes left in each cell)

18

What happens in telophase?

Spindles disappear
Nuclear membrane reappears
Cleavage forms (where the cell is cleaved)

19

What does meiosis produce?

Four non-identical haploid cells (produces eggs and sperm)

20

What happens in meiosis I?

Homologous pairs of chromosomes line up and separate

21

What are the stages of meiosis I?

Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I

22

What happens in prophase I?

Chromosomes are replicated
Nuclear membrane disappears
Homologous chromosomes "find" each other because near/identical sequence
Recombination occurs

23

What happens in metaphase I?

Homologous pairs line up in metaphase plane

24

What happens in anaphase I?

Homologous chromosomes separate

25

What happens in telophase I?

Nuclear membrane reforms
Spindles disappear

26

What is a homologous chromosome?

Pair of chromosomes of similar size and shape and same identical gene loci. One from mother, one from father.

27

What is a bivalent?

Homologous chromosomes attached to each other by chiasmata during first division of meiosis

28

What happens in meiosis II?

Chromosomes line up and chromatids separate

29

What are the stages of meiosis II?

Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II

30

What happens in prophase II?

Microtubules move one member of centriole pair to opp spindle pole in each of two daughter cells
Microtubules attach to chromosomes
Chromosomes recoil and shorten

31

What happens in metaphase II?

Microtubules, motor proteins and duplicated chromosomes interact, positioning all of the duplicated chromosomes midway between two spindle pairs
Unpaired chromosomes align at equator of cell

32

What happens in anaphase II?

Attachment between sister chromatids (centromere) of each chromosome breaks and two are moved to opp spindle poles
Each former sister is now a chromosome on its own

33

What happens in telophase II?

After cytoplasmic division, each daughter cell is haploid
All chromosomes are in an unduplicated state
Chromosomes uncoil and nuclear envelope reforms

34

What are the consequences of meiosis?

Maintains constant chromosome number from generation to generation
Generation of genetic diversity by random assortment of chromosomes and crossing over

35

How long does spermatogenesis take?

60 days

36

When and where does spermatogenesis start?

In the testes as soon as puberty starts

37

Why do spermatogonia go through mitosis as well as meiosis?

If only meiosis took place, you would run out of germ cells

38

Define spermatogonium

Cell produced at an early stage in the formation of the spermatozoa. Spermatogonia first appear in the testes of the foetus but do not multiply significantly until after puberty

39

Define spermatocyte

Cell produced in intermediate stage in the formation of the spermatozoa. Develop from spermatogonia

40

What happens in meiosis I in spermatogenesis?

Primary spermatocyte (diploid) becomes secondary spermatocyte (haploid)

41

What happens in meiosis II of spermatogenesis?

Sister chromatids separate and end up with four unique daughter cells which are called spermatids. These eventually mature (lose cytoplasm, get head and tail etc) in testes and eventually become sperm

42

How long does oogenesis take?

12-50 years

43

Why does mitosis take place in oogenesis?

To make more oogonium or to make a primary oocyte

44

When does oogenesis begin and when does it stop temporarily?

Begins in the foetal stage and stops in prophase I of meiosis during foetal development

45

How often does a primary oocyte go through meiosis and become an ovum?

Once a month

46

What is the goal of oogenesis?

Produce one big "egg" with all the cytoplasm, nutrients etc

47

What happens to the secondary oocyte if it is not fertilised?

It is shed during menstruation

48

What happens to the secondary oocyte if it is fertilised?

Meiosis II will be completed and it becomes a zygote

49

What are the consequences of missegregation in meiosis?

Third of all identified miscarriages
Infertility
Leading cause of mental retardation

50

What is nondisjunction?

The failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate normally during nuclear division, resulting in abnormal distribution of chromosomes in daughter nuclei

51

What is aneuploidy?

Error in cell division resulting in daughter cells having an incorrect number of chromosomes

52

Why does aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes have fewer adverse effects than aneuploidy of autosomes?

Everyone has at least one X chromosome so an incorrect number of sex chromosomes will not have as adverse an effect as having an incorrect number of autosomes as this would be lethal. Extra sex chromosomes would simply condense into one/inactivate.

53

What is a karyotype?

Number and visual appearance of chromosomes in a cell nuclei of an organism or species

54

What is mitotic nondisjunction?

The failure in mitosis for two members of a chromosome pair to separate normally so both the chromosomes go to one daughter cell while none go to the other daughter cell.

55

What is mosaicism?

The presence of two or more cell lines in an individual