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Flashcards in Sex And Gender Deck (23):

What is gender identity?

A psychological term


What is the phallic stage?

Frued's third stage of psychosexual development, in which gender development takes place


What is the Oedipus complex?

The conflict experienced by a boy in the phallic stage because he unconsciously desires his mother and is afraid of his father


What is the Electra complex?

The conflict experienced by a girl because she unconsciously desires her father and is afraid of losing her mothers love


What is modelling?

A role model provides an example for the child


What is imitation?

Copying the behaviour of a model


What is vicarious reinforcement?

Learning from the models being either rewarded or punished


What is a schema?

A building block of knowledge that we know to be true or false that tells us how to behave when we see or experience something new


Which chromosomes do males have?



Which chromosomes do females have?



Which hormone do males have?



Which hormone do females have?



What is gender schema theory?

When we don't know how to behave we look to our same sex parent.

We develop a schema as to how our sex should behave in that situation

When we are in a similar position next time we will behave in the same way

If this is correct we maintain the schema. If it is incorrect we change and add to our schemas


Evaluation of gender schema theory

- you might grow up with no same sex parent
- doesn't explain why some children are more highly gender schematised than other
- doesn't explain why gender begins to develop at at age of 2


Describe the psychodynamic theory of gender development

During the phallic stage, the child is unconsciously attracted to the same sex parent. They become jealous of the same sex parent.

The child starts to behave in the same way the same sex parent does in order to cope with their feelings.

Freud believed this happened differently in boys and girls, and gives evidence for this with little Han's.


Evaluate the psychodynamic theory of gender development

- sample - only 'little Han's', not enough evidence
- unfalsifiable - can't prove it to be false
- there has not been an increase in the homosexual population as Freud suggested would happen


What is gender disturbance?

My developing the same gender identity usually associated with ones sex


Evaluate social learning theory

- SLT doesn't explain dani lilies that there is two sisters with one parent but don't turn out exactly the same
- doesn't explain what happens for lone parents and same sex parents


Give an example of Social Learning Theory

Mum putting on makeup and dad telling her she looks pretty

Dad wearing a skirt and mum telling him he looks stupid


Describe Bandura's study?

Aim: to find out if 3-6 year old children would imitate the aggressive behaviour they see role models performing towards an inflatable 'bobo' doll

Method: researchers divided 96 children into 4 groups, 3 of which were shown someone throwing, kicking and punching the 'bobo' doll. Their own behaviour was then observed

Results: the children who had witnessed the aggression behaviour than the children who had seen none. They reacted more when they were the same sex

Conclusion: children will copy how they see others behave especially when they are the same sex


Evaluate Bandura's study

- it was done in a lab so they may not of acted as they would of in a natural setting -LEV
- it wasn't their mum or dad doing the punching/kicking etc
- extraneous variables - personality, more aggressive originally
'Bobo' doll - not an everyday toy that you would play with


Describe the Psychodynamic theory

- conscious mind- the thoughts your brain lets you think aloud
- unconscious mind- the thoughts and feelings we are unaware of

- ego- reality, balance ID and super ego out
- super ego- perfection, ideal self
- ID- 'pleasure', sex and violence (Thanatos)


What is sex identity?