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Psychology Unit 2 > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (19):

What is classical conditioning?

Leaning by association

A procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex with a new stimulus


What is extinction?

A conditioned response does out


What is spontaneous recovery

A conditioned response that had disappeared suddenly appears again


What is generalisation?

The conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the original stimulus is presented


What is discrimination? (With reference to conditioning)

The conditioned response is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented


What is operant conditioning?

Leading due to the consequences of behaviour, through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement


What is the law of effect?

Behaviours that are followed by rewards are usually repeated; those that are punished are not usually repeated


What is punishment?

A stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we try to avoid it


What is reinforcement?

A consequence of behaviour that encourages or strengthens a behaviour. This might be seen as a reward


What is positive reinforcement?

A reward or pleasant consequence that increases the likelihood that a behaviour or action will be repeated


What is negative reinforcement?

When an unpleasant experience is removed after a behaviour or action has been made. This increases the likelihood of that behaviour or action being repeated


What is behaviour shaping?

Changing behaviour in small steps


What is a phobia?

An irrational fear


What is systematic desensitisation?

A treatment for phobias in which the person is taught to relax and then is gradually exposed to the feared object, activity or event


What is hierarchy of fears?

A series of feared events ranked from leader frightening to most frightening


What is aversion therapy?

A treatment for addiction, such as drug and alcohol dependency, which makes the addict have an extremely negative reaction to the addictive substance


What is a primary reinforcer?

A reward such as food or water that the animal or person needs in order to survive


What is a secondary reinforcer?

A reward such as money or a token that the animal or person can exchange for a primary reinforcer


What is learning?

A relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience