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Psychology Unit 2 > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (19):
1

What is classical conditioning?

Leaning by association

A procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex with a new stimulus

2

What is extinction?

A conditioned response does out

3

What is spontaneous recovery

A conditioned response that had disappeared suddenly appears again

4

What is generalisation?

The conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the original stimulus is presented

5

What is discrimination? (With reference to conditioning)

The conditioned response is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented

6

What is operant conditioning?

Leading due to the consequences of behaviour, through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement

7

What is the law of effect?

Behaviours that are followed by rewards are usually repeated; those that are punished are not usually repeated

8

What is punishment?

A stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we try to avoid it

9

What is reinforcement?

A consequence of behaviour that encourages or strengthens a behaviour. This might be seen as a reward

10

What is positive reinforcement?

A reward or pleasant consequence that increases the likelihood that a behaviour or action will be repeated

11

What is negative reinforcement?

When an unpleasant experience is removed after a behaviour or action has been made. This increases the likelihood of that behaviour or action being repeated

12

What is behaviour shaping?

Changing behaviour in small steps

13

What is a phobia?

An irrational fear

14

What is systematic desensitisation?

A treatment for phobias in which the person is taught to relax and then is gradually exposed to the feared object, activity or event

15

What is hierarchy of fears?

A series of feared events ranked from leader frightening to most frightening

16

What is aversion therapy?

A treatment for addiction, such as drug and alcohol dependency, which makes the addict have an extremely negative reaction to the addictive substance

17

What is a primary reinforcer?

A reward such as food or water that the animal or person needs in order to survive

18

What is a secondary reinforcer?

A reward such as money or a token that the animal or person can exchange for a primary reinforcer

19

What is learning?

A relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience