Flashcards in Learning Deck (19):
What is classical conditioning?
Leaning by association
A procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex with a new stimulus
What is extinction?
A conditioned response does out
What is spontaneous recovery
A conditioned response that had disappeared suddenly appears again
What is generalisation?
The conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the original stimulus is presented
What is discrimination? (With reference to conditioning)
The conditioned response is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented
What is operant conditioning?
Leading due to the consequences of behaviour, through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement
What is the law of effect?
Behaviours that are followed by rewards are usually repeated; those that are punished are not usually repeated
What is punishment?
A stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we try to avoid it
What is reinforcement?
A consequence of behaviour that encourages or strengthens a behaviour. This might be seen as a reward
What is positive reinforcement?
A reward or pleasant consequence that increases the likelihood that a behaviour or action will be repeated
What is negative reinforcement?
When an unpleasant experience is removed after a behaviour or action has been made. This increases the likelihood of that behaviour or action being repeated
What is behaviour shaping?
Changing behaviour in small steps
What is a phobia?
An irrational fear
What is systematic desensitisation?
A treatment for phobias in which the person is taught to relax and then is gradually exposed to the feared object, activity or event
What is hierarchy of fears?
A series of feared events ranked from leader frightening to most frightening
What is aversion therapy?
A treatment for addiction, such as drug and alcohol dependency, which makes the addict have an extremely negative reaction to the addictive substance
What is a primary reinforcer?
A reward such as food or water that the animal or person needs in order to survive
What is a secondary reinforcer?
A reward such as money or a token that the animal or person can exchange for a primary reinforcer