Flashcards in Sex, Religion, and the Family Deck (23):
What was Durkheim's view of religion?
Durkheim said that religion was sacred objects that require a ritual to interact with, plus a "church" or a closed space/community of believers to practice this with
Sacred + Ritual + "Church" = religion
What are sacred objects according to Durkheim?
Sacred Objects are those that are set apart from profane everyday objects
what are rituals according to Durkheim?
rituals allow us to engage with the sacred objects, and is the primary element of religion
What was the two conflicting definitions of religion proposed by Marx?
Marx said that religion is societies response to exploitation and was the "heart of the heartless world and should of the soul-less circumstances" which could be viewed as the good part of religion
also said that "religion is the opium of people" and is the "painkiller" that prevents us from noticing SES disparities around us
What was the Abrahamic religions views on gender roles in the New Testament?
it was androcentric (focused on men)
- "Man" created in God's image
- women were seen as associated with sin (eve) and destruction (Delilah)
Mary the mother of Jesus is probably the biggest female role in the New Testament and she literally does not do anything; she does nothing and thats what makes her good [as a woman]
How does the church view sex and sexuality?
rules surrounding sex and sexuality are often about maintaining group boundaries (endogamy) which is ensuring similar groups end up meeting each other and marrying each other --> done through the family and kinship
What two ways did the church use to maintain hierarchies?
1. age and gender --> if you don't get married by X age then you are considered A CHILD; and ensuring that male and females have roles in prior and following marriage
2. hetrocentrism --> idea that the point of marriage is to procreate and that has to be done by a female and a male
Compare and contrast the views of Sexuality in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) vs. the New Testament?
Old Testament --> pro-sex
new testament --> pro-celibacy
Hebrew bible also has no rules surrounding pre-marital sex because girls married when they are 14 or super young so there was no such thing as pre-marital sex
authors of New Testament were expecting an apocalypse (i.e. Paul) and encouraged people to be Celibate so that they can spend less time focusing on getting married, having sex and kids and more time to devote themselves to God
How is virginity reflected in females (especially the catholic/religious ones who stay pure) vs. Males?
in females virginity is somehow sexualized; men want virgin women for some reason
in men its something they want to get rid of ASAP because it is NOT sexy
What are three examples of the commodification (commercialization) of celibacy and 'waiting till marriage'?
1. Purity rings: a promise between you and your parents that you will remain virgin till marriage
2. Publication industries --> works done by Joshua Harris; use the celibacy tied with romance
3. Purity Balls --> American Formal dance event attended by fathers and their daughters that promote virginity until marriage for teenage girls; is followed by a virginity pledge
What is Sexual Abstinence?
Principled and unerring abstention from sexual activity; it is heterosexual non-practice, the abstention of genital penetration
What is 'virginity'?
virginity is the same as sexual abstinence except its a feminized term; it is also NOT a biological state and you cannot tell biologically if an individual is a virgin
What is 'purity'?
purity is a promise to remain pure from (drugs, alcohol, sex) --> sex can be up till marriage
What is 'romantic abstinence'?
complete abstention from kissing, holding hands etc.. until marriage ; this was practiced by girls attending purity balls
What is 'chastity'?
commitment to remain a virgin till marriage
What is 'celibacy'?
permanent abstinence from sexual activity (practiced by nuns and priests) and can be till marriage as well
What are 'pledgers'?
signing documents to vow to not have sex before marriage
What was Bourdue's idea of 'field, habits, capital and symbolic violence'?
instead of economic capital, bourdiue focused on social, cultural and symbolic forms
he said that each person was placed in a field, whether that field is economy, politics, arts, journalism, bureaucracy, science or education, engenders a specific complex of social relations where the agents will engage their everyday practice.
field: any historical, non-homogeneous social-spatial arena in which people maneuver and struggle in pursuit of desirable resources.
Habitus: a system of HABITS that develop from the field that you are in; this can give access to certain capital;
capital: defined as sums of money or assets put to productive use; three types:
1. economic capital (money)
2. Social capital (nepotism; who you know and how far they will get you)
3. cultural (what you know)
symbolic violence is the difference between this and structural functionalism: Bourdieu sees symbolic capital (e.g., prestige, honor, attention) as a crucial source of power. When a holder of symbolic capital uses the power this confers against an agent who holds less, and seeks thereby to alter their actions, they exercise symbolic violence (i.e. if we hold a door for a woman BECAUSE they are woman, and because men have 'superiority' towards them).
a variety of cultural captial is also Erotic capital which is sex appeal; this is what you find sexy
What are the three primary forms of erotic capital (what they find sexy) exchanged and converted at Grace?
1. Worldly Capital
2. Christian Capital
3. Virgin capital
What is worldy capital?
includes those qualities that persons both in and outside of Evangelical sub-culture find attractive such as money, intelligence, good looks etc..
what is christian capital?
finding someone attractive due to their christian maturity and wisdom
does not have to be in the exact same group but something really similar
its a subtle form of endogamy
What is virgin capital?
sexual abstinence and attraction
finding attraction towards individuals who did not practice pre-marital sex